Oxfam International Blogs - Kenya http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/tags/kenya en The lean face of drought in Wajir county, northern Kenya http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-08-29-lean-face-drought-wajir-county-northern-kenya <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>By Blandina Bobson – Oxfam Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, Wajir, KENYA</em><br><br>The face of drought in Wajir County, in Kenya’s north is ugly. The land is bare and expansive, multiple whirlwinds sweeping across every now and then, which local myths call ‘the devil’. It is emaciated animals feeding on what seems like invisible grass on the ground or camels browsing on thorny remains of what used to be green leafy bushes. Masses of evidently emaciated livestock hurdling to quench their thirst around water points, after hours-long treks in search of the same. Women will wait patiently in line to fill their jerry cans to take back home.</p><p>Families have been sunk into increasing vulnerability. Men are struggling to provide for their families, their faces are sad and strained as they stare into the unknown future, while the eyes of women and children dart about in hope whenever ‘visitors’ drop by their villages.</p><p>In July, an assessment of the drought crisis in the country revealed that <strong>3.4 million people in Kenya are now <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/food-insecurity-infographic" rel="nofollow">severely food insecure</a></strong> and need urgent food assistance. Of these, 800,000 will likely be in a more serious food situation by September.</p><p>“I used to buy my children milk but I can’t afford it anymore because business is really down. The livestock owners who used to be my customers have migrated with the little livestock they have left,” said Rukia, a widow and a mother of 5 children who runs a small business in Dambas village.</p><p><strong>Oxfam, supported by the humanitarian arm of the European Union (<a href="https://ec.europa.eu/echo/" rel="nofollow">ECHO</a>), is providing cash assistance</strong> for food, water and other essentials to 3,000 families in parts of Wajir. This assistance complements that of the Kenya government through the National Drought Management Authority (<a href="http://www.ndma.go.ke/" rel="nofollow">NDMA)</a> which is now over 54,000 families with similar assistance. But really this is only a drop in the ocean given the fast deteriorating situation.</p><p>Despite offering reprieve, this assistance does not come without its fair share of challenges. Oxfam has spoken with families who have been forced to share part of their monthly cash assistance of KES 2,700 (25 Euros) with those in their communities not directly targeted by the program, yet are in critical need of help. This is a strong indication that even those that were thought to be less vulnerable have also lost the little muscle they had to deal with the effects of the drought.</p><h3>Helping the most vulnerable</h3><p>“We are illiterate and vulnerable, if we raise complaints we might not get our cash,’’ said Kasim Makala, 46 – year old mother of eight, who has previously received similar help.</p><p>While we must recognize the efforts of different actors in the response, there is certainly more that should be done now to ensure that affected communities get the help they need. More resources are urgently needed to reach the ever growing scale of need.</p><p><strong>Everyone must play their part.</strong> Local, national and international actors must complement the efforts being undertaken by the government and humanitarian agencies and ensure that affected communities are able to cope with the effects of the prolonged drought.</p><p>Across East Africa, Yemen and north-east Nigeria, some 30 million people are experiencing alarming hunger, surviving only on what they can find to eat. Famine is already likely happening in parts of northern Nigeria, while Yemen and Somalia are on the brink. This is the largest hunger emergency in the world.</p><h3>Oxfam is there</h3><p><a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/famine-and-hunger-crisis" rel="nofollow">Oxfam is on the ground</a> in all areas, reaching the most affected with the emergency help they need to survive. We are:</p><ul><li>Working with local partner organizations who provide emergency food distributions and work with vulnerable people to produce their own food and other income.</li><li>Providing emergency water and sanitation, to stop the spread of diseases like cholera and diarrhea</li><li>Providing cash and vouchers so people can purchase the food they need to survive</li><li>Trucking in urgently needed water to the worst drought affected areas</li><li>Constructing showers and toilets for those who have been forced to flee their homes.</li></ul><h3>What you can do now</h3><p><a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/famine-and-hunger-crisis" rel="nofollow"><strong>Donate to Oxfam's hunger crisis appeal</strong></a></p><p><em>This entry posted by Blandina Bobson,&nbsp;Oxfam Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, Kenya, on 29 August 2017.<br></em></p><p><em>Photo: Dead livestock are a common sight in many parts of Wajir, in northern Kenya, which is in the grip of a severe drought that is expected to last until October 2017. <em>Katie G. Nelson/Oxfam</em></em></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>The lean face of drought in Wajir county, northern Kenya</h2></div> Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:33:46 +0000 Guest Blogger 81188 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-08-29-lean-face-drought-wajir-county-northern-kenya#comments Breaking the cycle of Turkana's drought crisis http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-05-08-breaking-cycle-turkanas-drought-crisis <div class="field field-name-body"><h3>How long term water solutions are helping families in Turkana break the cycle of crisis and cope in the drought</h3><p>The hour-long trek with the first glimmers of dawn is still very vivid in her mind.</p><p>“By five o’clock each morning, my sisters and I were already on the road, walking to the community water pan to collect water,” narrates Teresa Arot from Lowareng’ak area, north of Turkana. “All the women used to go there so we preferred going earlier than the rest.”</p><p>Back arrow-straight and a twenty litre bucketful of water meticulously balanced on their heads, each would hurriedly make their way back home and be seated in their respective classrooms, all in 90 minutes.</p><p><strong>Years of drought characterized by high temperatures and poor to no rain</strong> have trapped families like Teresa’s and thousands others living in Turkana, in a seemingly endless vicious cycle of crisis. In Lowareng’ak, residents say the last time it rained was in early 2016.</p><p>Before Oxfam began <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/famine-and-hunger-crisis" rel="nofollow">our response there</a>, families would have to rely on supply from a private source, only available every eight days. Those who could not wait were forced to depend on water trucking from county authorities, often expensive and irregular. Women and girls travelling long distances in search of water had little extra time left to focus on income-earning activities. In most cases, the available water was often too saline or had too much fluoride to be used.</p><p><img alt="Oxfam water-pump in Mautano, Turkana, Kenya. It is the only water source for 15 kilometers around. Photo: Renata De Groot/Oxfam" title="Oxfam water-pump in Mautano, Turkana, Kenya. It is the only water source for 15 kilometers around. Photo: Renata De Groot/Oxfam" height="930" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/105278lpr-kenya-drought-1240-credit.jpg" /></p><p>However, things have since changed. In February 2017, Oxfam upgraded the borehole there to a hybrid system powered by solar energy and electricity generators, bringing reprieve for Teresa’s community and their neighbors.</p><p><strong>“It has not rained for over a year</strong> so water is a big problem for everyone. But because of this borehole, we do not lack water,” she said. “It is hard for those who don’t have these (boreholes). Some walk for hours to come find water here. One woman told me that if she had known sooner that we had water here, her animals would still be alive today.”</p><h2>A desperate crisis</h2><p>Margaret Atiir, from Kapua village at least a hundred kilometres from Lowareng’ak, is one such woman.</p><p>“Back in February, a truck brought us water here - once. I can’t remember if they (water truckers) came again before that. We haven’t seen them since and we don’t know when they will be back.”</p><p>After four days, the 40 year old mother of four had used up the water she had received and has once again to make the usual arduous journey to the remaining hand-dug well in her home village in Kapua, in Kenya’s Turkana county.</p><p><strong>“I have to walk four kilometres from my home to the well</strong>just to fill a twenty litre bucket. I have to make several trips to have enough water for my children. Some days I’m too weak to go so we either borrow from our neighbors, or wait until I’m strong enough.”</p><p>“We are not used to having a lot of water so the little that we have has to be used as if it were the last we’ll ever get. As long as there is enough for the children and the animals, the rest of us can survive.”</p><p><img alt="Oxfam supported water kiosk, Nasechabuin, Turkana. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" title="Oxfam supported water kiosk, Nasechabuin, Turkana. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" height="827" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/105507-oxfam-water-kiosk-1240.jpg" /></p><p><strong>Turkana is among 23 counties, half of Kenya, that have been ravaged by a devastating drought.</strong>&nbsp; 2.6 million people now need life-saving aid, including clean safe water. Water sources have been stretched with increased demand from both people and livestock. According to the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) only 40% of all boreholes in Turkana are functional, leaving unsafe options such as scoop wells or Lake Turkana.</p><p>Water vendors, like Francis Etyang (below), at Kalokol market neighboring Kapua, who once depended on a private borehole to find water to sell, now have to work longer hours and dig deeper into the ground to find the fleeting lifeline.</p><p>“I spend up to five hours each morning looking for water to sell. Even then, most people cannot afford to buy it every day. So I end up using so much time and energy and get very little in return.”</p><p><img alt="A water vendor loading water into a truck for transportation to Kalokol town, Turkana for sale. Each 20 liter jerry-can costs KES 50 (USD$0.5). Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" title="A water vendor loading water into a truck for transportation to Kalokol town, Turkana for sale. Each 20 liter jerry-can costs KES 50 (USD$0.5). Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" height="827" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/105501-water-vendor-140.jpg" /></p><p>Since September 2016, Oxfam has been on the ground repairing and upgrading boreholes as well as providing cash assistance to help people buy water and food teaching people on good hygiene and sanitation. By end of March 2017, 12 boreholes had been repaired, restoring water to over 51,000 people.</p><p><strong>"We have a desperate humanitarian crisis across the region</strong>,” said Zubin Zaman, Oxfam’s lead on the drought crisis in the Horn of Africa region. “Saving lives by ensuring food security and helping people protect their means to earn an income, immediately and in the most effective way, is vital. But we can only help families survive this crisis if we have all hands on deck - staff; partners including governments as well as donors."</p><h3>Today’s solutions for tomorrow’s crises</h3><p>For almost five decades, Oxfam has implemented water and sanitation projects predominantly in the north and west of Turkana. One main focus has been on employing longer term solutions that would help communities plan and respond better to future crises, cushioning them from future shocks.</p><p>Since 2014 and through the <a href="http://swiftconsortium.org/about/dfid_wash_results_programme/" rel="nofollow">SWIFT program</a> funded by DFID through its <a href="https://devtracker.dfid.gov.uk/projects/GB-1-203572/" rel="nofollow">WASH Results Program</a>, Oxfam has been able to install 15 new solar-powered boreholes, providing clean safe water for nearly 129,000 people in Turkana. We have also supported the county’s water utility companies with technical skills training in borehole management that has led to increased investment in new technology (hybrid systems) and accountability through water billing systems to improve accountability.</p><p>The SWIFT program is just one of many projects to increase people’s access to sustainable water. Among others are a three year (2011-2014) program funded by the European Union that has drilled 33 boreholes and upgraded 18 water points, providing safe clean water to over 58,000 people.</p><p></p><p><img alt="Jennifer Arot, 22, watering her goats with clean water from the Oxfam supported water kiosk in Nasechabuin, Turkana. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" title="Jennifer Arot, 22, watering her goats with clean water from the Oxfam supported water kiosk in Nasechabuin, Turkana. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam" height="827" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/105506-feeding-goats-1240.jpg" /><br><br><strong>“Aid does work but how it is invested is the crucial bit</strong>,” said Rose Tino, Oxfam’s Program Manager in Turkana. “It is more impactful to focus on long term approaches in solving challenges so that when a crisis like this happens, there are solid systems that sustain communities throughout a crisis and beyond.”</p><p>“Oxfam has been very instrumental in introducing new durable, cost effective technology to address the water problem in Turkana. We have drilled and upgraded several boreholes, with some that have not broken down in at least three years. Where you have cycles of drought and that water point is not breaking down, it’s a clear testament that these mechanisms are helping people.”</p><p>Jennifer Arot (above) from Nasechabuin area says the four-kilometre pipeline installed by Oxfam to bring water right to her village doorstep, has been a reprieve particularly in this drought.</p><p>“I have water right outside my door so in one way my family is safe. Even my animals can now stay alive.”</p><p><a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/famine-and-hunger-crisis" rel="nofollow"><strong>Please support Oxfam's response to the drought and hunger crisis</strong></a></p><p><em>This entry posted by Faith Kasina (<a href="https://twitter.com/FaeKasina" rel="nofollow">@FaeKasina</a>), Oxfam Regional Media and Communications Adviser, on 8 May 2017.</em></p><p><em>Photos:<br></em></p><ul><li><em>A woman carrying 2 water jerrycans and a baby on her back in Nasechabuin, Turkana. This is water from the Oxfam-supported water Kiosk. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam, March 2017</em></li><li><em>&nbsp;A blue pump installed by Oxfam in Mautano, Turkana, is located over a borehole and pumps water up. It is durable and breaks down less. It is made from light weight material so it’s easy to fix and doesn’t rust. Oxfam have trained local people how to mend it themselves. It is the only water source for 15 kilometers around and vital for people affected by the drought. Credit: Renata De Groot/Oxfam</em></li><li><em>A water vendor loading water into a truck for transportation to Kalokol town, Turkana for sale. Each 20 liter jerry-can costs KES 50 (USD$0.5). Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam</em></li><li><em>Jennifer Arot, 22, watering her goats with clean water from the Oxfam supported water kiosk in Nasechabuin, Turkana. Credit: Joyce Kabue/Oxfam</em></li></ul><p><em><strong>To learn more, please check out the <a href="https://views-voices.oxfam.org.uk/debating-drought" rel="nofollow">new blog series on drought</a> - its causes, effects and definitions, and how to build resilience.</strong></em></p><p></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Breaking the cycle of Turkana&#039;s drought crisis</h2></div> Mon, 08 May 2017 10:48:28 +0000 Guest Blogger 81052 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-05-08-breaking-cycle-turkanas-drought-crisis#comments Kenya ruling against the closure of Daadab refugee camp is a strike for humanity http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-02-17-kenya-ruling-against-closure-daadab-refugee-camp-strike-humanity <div class="field field-name-body"><p>Last week Kenya’s High Court <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-38917681" rel="nofollow">upheld refugee rights</a> rooted in regional and international law and declared null and void the government's bid to close Dadaab, the largest refugee camp in the world. <br><br>At a time when the number of refugees and displaced people has reached the <a href="http://www.unhcr.org/uk/news/latest/2016/6/5763b65a4/global-forced-displacement-hits-record-high.html" rel="nofollow">highest levels ever recorded in history</a>, and many governments seem to be turning their backs to people fleeing conflict and disaster, this decision of the Kenyan High Court is all the more an act of courage, bravery and humanity; it is also a victory for the people of Dadaab and all refugees – although a temporary one, since the Government of Kenya may appeal against the ruling. <br><br>However, we need to look beyond Dadaab at the root causes of displacement in the East Africa region which is currently home to a number of humanitarian crisis: <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/crisis-south-sudan" rel="nofollow">3 million South Sudanese</a> have been forced to leave their homes by war and many are refugees in Kenya; 15 million people in Somalia and Ethiopia are suffering through <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/ethiopia-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">one of the most devastating droughts</a> in recent years; and over <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/burundi/burundian-refugees-find-safety-tanzania-also-new-challenges" rel="nofollow">300,000 Burundians</a> have had to flee their country because of violence and persecution.</p><p><img alt="Aerial view of the world&#039;s largest refugee settlement, Dadaab. Credit: Andy Hall/Oxfam" title="Aerial view of the world&#039;s largest refugee settlement, Dadaab. Credit: Andy Hall/Oxfam" height="680" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/dadaab-andy-hall-1240x680_0.jpg" /></p><p>In Kenya, we can't afford to ignore these crises or shy away from them - nor can the international community. The only realistic approach to closing Dadaab and other refugee camps is to tackle the root causes of the crises that force people to flee their homes, and to support refugees so that they can achieve the safe, dignified and healthy future that they are prepared, quite literally, to die for.</p><p><strong>Kenya is geographically placed right at the centre of these crises.</strong> As the biggest economic and political player in the region, it has a responsibility, as well as an opportunity for leadership, in the development of 21st century responses for refugees. Refugees residing in Dadaab camp and other host communities around the world often desire nothing more than to return home, and they should be seen as partners in the development of innovative plans affecting their futures.</p><p><strong><img alt="Brick buildings in IFO2, built to replace plastic sheeting shelters which had worn out. Credit: Jo Harrison/Oxfam" title="Brick buildings in IFO2, built to replace plastic sheeting shelters which had worn out. Credit: Jo Harrison/Oxfam" height="680" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/72958lpr-brick-buildings-1240_0.jpg" /></strong></p><p>For decades the government and people of Kenya have provided refuge to hundreds of thousands of people. They should be proud of their generosity and hospitality. And now, as unprecedented numbers of people continue to run from conflict, disasters, and persecution amid a rising tide of backlash against them, it is critical that traditional stalwarts of refugee rights, including Kenya, maintain policies that protect them.</p><p>The High Court’s land mark decision provides an opportunity to renew this commitment.</p><p><em>This entry posted by Serena Tremonti, Oxfam Media Officer, on 17 February 2017.</em></p><p><em>Photos:</em></p><ul><li><em>Men building latrine slabs for family toilets, paid by Oxfam. Credit: Jo Harrison/Oxfam, June 2012</em></li><li><em>An aerial view of the world's largest refugee settlement, Dadaab. Credit: Andy Hall/Oxfam, November 2011</em></li><li><em>Brick buildings in IFO2, built to replace plastic sheeting shelters which had worn out. Credit: Jo Harrison/Oxfam, June 2012</em></li></ul><h3>What you can do now</h3><ul><li><a href="http://oxf.am/ZBsN" rel="nofollow"><strong>Stand with families forced to flee their homes from conflict</strong></a></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what-we-do/emergency-response/burundi-refugee-crisis" rel="nofollow">Support Oxfam's humanitarian response to the Burundi refugee crisis</a><br></strong></li></ul></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Kenya ruling against the closure of Daadab refugee camp is a strike for humanity</h2></div> Fri, 17 Feb 2017 17:43:40 +0000 Guest Blogger 80939 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/17-02-17-kenya-ruling-against-closure-daadab-refugee-camp-strike-humanity#comments Tax justice: Are the victims of inequality at the global table? http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/16-09-07-tax-justice-are-victims-inequality-global-table <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>Eric Kinaga, Oxfam Kenya’s Tax Justice Program Officer, highlights the fact that communities most affected by inequality and tax injustice in Kenya are still without a voice in the debate. Eric is blogging in support of <a href="https://storify.com/vrugg1/taxjustice-blogging-day" rel="nofollow">Tax Justice Blogging Day</a>, an international initiative of the EU-funded '<a href="https://europa.eu/eyd2015/en/tax-justice-together" rel="nofollow">Tax Justice Together</a>' project, a collaboration of 24 partner organizations across 16 EU countries and 3 in the Global South working together to put tax justice at the heart of the European agenda.</em></p> <p>I recently had the opportunity to visit Lopiding, a quiet and scenic village just outside Lokichogio in Turkana County, Kenya. My colleagues and I were here to conduct a baseline study for the Tax Justice program currently being run by Oxfam in Kenya with support from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland. The project is aimed at contributing to a more progressive, transparent and accountable tax mobilisation and expenditure regime that contributes to reduced inequality and improved quality of life for poor, vulnerable and marginalized women and young people in Kenya. It’s currently being implemented in Nairobi, Wajir and Turkana counties.</p> <p>Lopiding, located 95 kilometers away from Kakuma town sits at the bottom of a valley sandwiched between two hills that overlook South Sudan. The villagers there seemed quite hostile at first, but are actually very hospitable. I later came to realise that the hills that border them, over the years, have been used as a perfect hideout by the Toposa (an ethnic group from South Sudan), who besides the Pokot, are every Turkana’s worst nightmare, due to livestock raiding, which is usually very violent. They are the reason why the Turkanas living in Lopiding are cautious about who walks into their village for whatever reason. Luckily for us, we had no intention to take away their only remaining herd of goats.</p> <p>One of our first respondents, an old woman in her early seventies, was excited to participate in the baseline survey. She told us her name was Akiru and that she had just returned home from a county government food distribution program that happens once in every month. She had spent the entire morning walking back home from Kakuma. As we carried on with the interview, a dog came and quietly sat next to her. Ten minutes later, our conversation was suddenly interrupted by loud wails. Akiru was vainly trying to get on her feet, reaching for anything she could to throw at the dog which now sat a few metres away from us, crouched onto an old sack. It was feasting on her dry maize!</p> <p>Two things; First, dogs don’t eat dry maize. And two, people don’t eat GDP.</p> <h3>Rising economic growth is not being felt by most East African citizens</h3> <p>In July this year, a report by SID (<a href="http://www.sidint.net/" rel="nofollow">Society for International Development</a>) revealed that despite the narrative being peddled on the rising economic growth for East African countries over the last few years, little change is being felt by the average citizens living in these countries. As their economies have grown, so in fact did the inequality, leaving behind a wider gap between the rich and the poor; a gap that might take decades to fill. It is here that Akiru and millions of other Africans today rally behind what is now becoming a global clarion call – that <em>people don’t eat GDP</em>.</p> <p>As most governments today rally behind economic models dominated by free-market policies, which eventually undermines equitable revenue collection and bolsters inequality, the poor are left more exposed to manipulation than ever before. However, the most unfortunate thing is that the subject of inequality remains very high levelled, with only a few having discourse on this matter and unless we continue bringing more women like Akiru into this debate, it may never be inclusive.</p> <h3>Giving a platform and voice to young people and women</h3> <p>Fortunately, the <a href="https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs" rel="nofollow">SDG agenda</a> and <a href="http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/" rel="nofollow">Financing for Development</a> now put domestic resource mobilization at the heart of service delivery. They are giving a platform and a voice to young people and women like Akiru to participate in the structuring of their own models of governance. Proof of this is found in the enshrining of public participation as one of the constitutional pillars driving the <a href="http://kenyalaw.org/kl/index.php?id=398" rel="nofollow">Kenyan Constitution of 2010</a>. The objective of social contract is finally starting to gain wave across the African continent. As a result of this, communities are starting to question their places in the economic models adopted by their respective governments.</p> <p>The story of Akiru reminds us of the millions of women across the globe who live everyday staring at death and are resigned to silence and indifference by the misery that abides around them, leaving them in constant motion; running away from hunger by day and from the Toposa by night.</p> <p><strong>If the war on inequality is to be won</strong>, then we must ensure that the ‘Akirus’ of this world are empowered to take up their rightful spaces in this campaign, so as to call out for more equal and inclusive governance models. This world belongs to them equally.</p> <p><em>This entry posted by Eric Kinaga, Tax Justice Program Officer, Oxfam in Kenya, on 7 September 2016.</em></p> <p><em>Photo: Pupils at Reuben Baptist primary in Mukuru informal settlements, Nairobi, Kenya. Enrollment and attendance in the school has improved since the installation of fresh life toilets. Credit: Allan Gichigi/Oxfam</em></p> <p>Tax dodging keeps making headlines across the world. Today, campaigners and activists across the world share their stories about why they are taking on the fight for <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23taxjustice&amp;src=typd" rel="nofollow">#taxjustice</a>. Please share this blog, or the graphic below.</p> <p><img alt="#TaxJustice blogging day - 7th September 2016" title="#TaxJustice blogging day - 7th September 2016" height="1200" width="1200" class="media-element file-default" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/tax-justice_facebook-final.jpg" /></p> <p> </p> <p> </p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Tax justice: Are the victims of inequality at the global table?</h2></div> Wed, 07 Sep 2016 07:39:42 +0000 Guest Blogger 60877 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/16-09-07-tax-justice-are-victims-inequality-global-table#comments Oxfam International signs historic deal to move to Nairobi. Kenya http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/16-07-22-oxfam-international-signs-historic-deal-move-nairobi-kenya <div class="field field-name-body"><p>22 July 2016 -- When I became Executive Director of Oxfam International in May 2013 I was very proud and very excited. Oxfam is one of the world’s most recognizable and renowned social justice INGOs, a group of organizations united in the fight against poverty. The chance to help shape its future was a terrific opportunity. Every day since, my pride and excitement in our work has only grown.</p> <p>But I also remember at the time being uneasy. In my head and my heart, I felt the “center” of Oxfam was not where it needed to be and that voices within Oxfam were not balanced globally. I talked with many more experienced Oxfam colleagues and I was relieved. No-one disagreed. I was arguing with nobody. Oxfam needed to shift its center of leadership and to strengthen Southern voices within its decision-making.</p> <p>When imagining a future, it’s important to understand the past. Oxfam was founded by Quakers, activists and academics in Oxford, UK in 1942. They campaigned against the Allied blockade of German-occupied Greece to stop the starvation of civilians. Successful, our founders expanded Oxfam’s work into Asia and Africa, concentrating in the main on tackling hunger and poverty. Truly, Oxfam has stood on the shoulders of these giants. <a href="https://www.oxfam.org.uk" rel="nofollow">Oxfam GB</a> remains Oxfam’s biggest affiliate – genuinely loved by the British public – and a powerhouse of Oxfam’s international confederation.</p> <p>Gradually, social justice organizations from other countries gravitated toward Oxfam – sometimes joining up loosely, via a strand of work, sometimes more closely bonded by a shared mission. They brought their own rich histories, development programs and alliances to the table, and their own supporters and funding relationships. By 1995 this loose confederation of Oxfams - who had begun to take the Oxfam name, too – established an international Secretariat to coordinate their work, and eventually brought it under a shared single global strategic plan. For convenience, the Secretariat was located in Oxford, where the first Oxfam had been founded.</p> <p>As of today we have 18 <a href="http://www.oxfam.org" rel="nofollow">Oxfam</a> affiliate members and two observers, with plans to welcome more, with a combined spend of <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/annual-and-financial-reports" rel="nofollow">about $1b</a>. We run development programs and have more than 3,000 partner organizations in more than 90 countries, along with a single humanitarian emergency response team that is expert on water, sanitation and protection issues. We campaign together against <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/campaigns/even-it-up" rel="nofollow">inequality</a>, for the <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/campaigns/rights-crisis" rel="nofollow">protection of people’s rights</a> in times of crisis, and for sustainable development and a <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/campaigns/grow" rel="nofollow">fairer global food system</a>. Each affiliate member retains its independence and its sovereign rights, responsible for its relationships with its own government, supporters, partners and donors.</p> <p>From 2017, the Oxfam International Secretariat will begin its move to Nairobi in Kenya. We have signed a Memorandum of Understanding and a Host Country Agreement with the President and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kenya. I must give my personal thanks to President Uhuru Kenyatta for being such an enthusiastic champion to help realize our plans.</p> <p>It will take two years to complete the move. We will begin first to relocate senior directors and other key Secretariat staff. Thereafter, the new location will help us to recruit locally more easily. As is the case now, our Secretariat will remain a multi-locational organization, with advocacy offices in DC, NY, Brussels and Addis Ababa, a Global Humanitarian Team, and other staff accommodated in our affiliate HQs and country teams, too.</p> <p>This move does not affect Oxfam’s affiliate members. Affiliates’ domestic and overseas operations and their own relationships with their publics, donors and governments will not change. The British public is not losing its famous Oxfam! Oxfam GB will remain as strong and as vibrant as ever. Instead, the British public (and publics in other countries) will continue supporting an Oxfam that is part of a movement led from an African location – not a European one.</p> <p>This move is far deeper than a symbolic one (although I believe that the symbolism is important too). The fact is the world is changing and I believe it is necessary for NGOs like Oxfam to change. Southern countries are growing ever more influential on international stages. Important decisions affecting millions of people are being made in cities that are entirely different from the centres of power of 50, 20, or even 10 years ago. Many poor countries are growing economically and becoming middle income but poverty and misery persists, worsened by climate change and resource scarcity. Rising inequality in almost every country is undermining all our efforts to eradicate poverty.</p> <p>Our work today is more about supporting ordinary people – everywhere – to hold political decision-makers and corporates to account, so they can exercise their rights to a fair share of the benefits of economic, political and social development. It’s about linking ordinary people’s struggles and experiences, everywhere. We need to work more closely with citizens to overcome economic and political exclusion, which is the root cause of poverty.</p> <p>For Oxfam therefore, to be more “globally balanced”, with stronger roots and deeper representation in the South is critical. And that is why Oxfam has decided that its global Secretariat should sit nearer to the people that we're working with to fight the injustice of poverty.</p> <p><em>This entry posted by Winnie Byanyima (<a href="twitter.com/Winnie_Byanyima" rel="nofollow">@Winnie_Byanyima</a>), Executive Director Oxfam International, on 22 July 2016.</em></p> <p><a href="https://www.oxfam.org/donate" rel="nofollow"><strong>Donate to Oxfam</strong></a></p> <p><strong><a href="https://blogs.oxfam.org/en/user/profile/winnie-byanyima">Read more by Winnie Byanyima</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Oxfam International signs historic deal to move to Nairobi. Kenya</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_es first last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/16-07-22-oxfam-internacional-firma-un-acuerdo-hist%C3%B3rico-para-mudar-su-sede-nairobi-kenia" title="Oxfam Internacional firma un acuerdo histórico para mudar su sede a Nairobi, Kenia" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Fri, 22 Jul 2016 15:43:11 +0000 Winnie Byanyima 54900 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/16-07-22-oxfam-international-signs-historic-deal-move-nairobi-kenya#comments Día 8: Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/10165 <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em><strong>Las ideas de los expertos para mejorar la productividad de los agricultores de menos recursos deben guiarse por el conocimiento indígena. Micro-innovaciones de bajo costo que utilizan recursos locales tienen gran potencial, aun si los grandes promotores de tecnología agrícola las ignoran.</strong></em></p> <p><em>Por la Dra. Florence Wambugu, directora ejecutiva de Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (<strong><a href="http://africaharvest.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">AHBFI</a></strong>)</em></p> <p>Aunque mucha gente me conoce por mi trabajo para defender el derecho del continente africano al acceso a tecnología genéticamente modificada (GM por sus siglas en inglés), es poco conocido que lo que despertó mi interés por esta tecnología fue, en gran medida, mi deseo de aumentar la productividad agrícola de las familias agricultoras con pocos recursos. Sigo defendiendo esta idea, pero soy consciente de que la tecnología GM es solo una de las numerosas herramientas de las que dispone tanto la comunidad científica como la agricultora. </p> <p>Por supuesto, las tecnologías convencionales también desempeñan un papel importante, pero lo que realmente me gustaría explorar en este artículo es la necesidad de enmarcar las ideas de los expertos en la materia destinadas a mejorar los recursos de los que disponen los campesinos pobres dentro del conocimiento indígena que poseen las personas que se van a beneficiar de las tecnologías. </p> <p>Cuando el VIH/SIDA se cobra la vida de un hombre, ¿tiene su viuda, sola para cuidar de sus siete hijos, algo con lo que contribuir para superar la difícil situación a la que se enfrenta? El hecho de que solo posea un acre de las áridas y semiáridas tierras de Kenya, ¿la convierte en mera receptora de las intervenciones en favor del desarrollo? ¿Podría su experiencia sobre la miríada de retos a los que se enfrenta proporcionar una solución a sus problemas?</p> <p>Desafortunadamente, a menudo los principales actores implicados en investigación y desarrollo (I+D) agrícola no incorporan en sus intervenciones las ideas e innovaciones desarrolladas por las familias agricultoras. No obstante, los actores del desarrollo, forzados por años de éxito limitado, han comenzado a buscar ahora las mejores maneras de aprovechar el conocimiento y las innovaciones agrícolas de origen indígena.</p> <h3><em>“A menudo los principales actores implicados en investigación y desarrollo agrícola no incorporan en sus intervenciones las ideas e innovaciones desarrolladas por las familias agricultoras.”</em></h3> <p>El proyecto sobre seguridad alimentaria y gestión de los ecosistemas para favorecer unos medios de vida sostenibles en tierras áridas y semiáridas de Kenya (FOSEMS, por sus siglas en inglés) es un ejemplo ilustrativo de ello. Este proyecto, financiado por el Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA) y puesto en marcha por Africa Harvest, demuestra el valor que aporta la inclusión de las ideas e innovaciones indígenas en las intervenciones.</p> <p>El proyecto, que adopta un criterio integral a la hora de abordar la seguridad alimentaria, la gestión de los ecosistemas y los medios de vida sostenibles, tiene cinco componentes: cultivos alimentarios tradicionales, cultivos hortícolas, gestión de la fertilidad del suelo, agua (conservación, almacenamiento y gestión) y ganadería de ciclo corto. </p> <p>El proyecto abarca los estratos más pobres de las áridas y semiáridas tierras del distrito de Makueni y Central Kitui de la provincia oriental de Kenya. La agricultura y el agropastoralismo conforman los medios de vida de las comunidades que habitan en esa zona, que están compuestas por agricultores de subsistencia, procesadores de cultivos tradicionales, ganaderos, familias afectadas por el VIH/SIDA, trabajadores rurales desempleados y comerciantes de productos agrícolas.   </p> <p>En un principio, éramos muy conscientes de que los campesinos con falta de recursos a los que iba dirigido el proyecto tenían conocimientos indígenas. Por lo tanto, buscamos activamente a campesinos que estuvieran desarrollando nuevas estrategias para mitigar los retos a los que se enfrentaban. </p> <h3><em>“Sin necesidad de aplicar avanzados sistemas de producción agrícola, lograron aumentar sus ingresos incorporando pequeñas mejoras partiendo de pocos recursos.”</em></h3> <p>El personal de nuestro proyecto (un equipo multidisciplinario de científicos, sociólogos, economistas y trabajadores de campo) unió fuerzas con las comunidades locales y otros actores para desarrollar una estrategia a la que llamamos “farmers first-and-last” (FFL) en la que los campesinos beneficiarios definen el objetivo y la aplicación de la investigación, y ha resultado ser más efectiva que la alternativa que se utiliza frecuentemente, el modelo de transferencia de tecnología (TT). </p> <p>Comenzamos con un proceso sistemático de comprensión de las condiciones en las que se encontraban los campesinos, y en consulta con líderes campesinos desarrollamos soluciones creadas localmente y adaptables de cara a superar los retos a los que se enfrentan.</p> <p>Estos retos incluían unas condiciones del suelo desfavorables, erráticos patrones de lluvia, bajo índice de alfabetización, volatilidad de los precios de mercado de los insumos y los productos finales y un acceso limitado a los mercados de seguros y de crédito. Si bien algunos campesinos son propietarios de las tierras en las que cultivan, carecen de los activos productivos aceptables como garantía. Las investigaciones normalmente coinciden en que estos campesinos se verán desproporcionadamente afectados por el cambio climático y en que las reformas comerciales no son suficientes por sí solas para reducir la pobreza a la que se enfrentan. </p> <h3><em>“Estos campesinos experimentan e innovan, lo que les permite desarrollar prácticas agrícolas altamente adaptables a las condiciones que prevalezcan.”</em></h3> <p>Estos campesinos experimentan e innovan, lo que les permite desarrollar sus propias prácticas agrícolas, las cuales son altamente adaptables a las condiciones agroecológicas y socioeconómicas que prevalezcan. Sin necesidad de aplicar avanzados sistemas de producción agrícola, lograron aumentar sus ingresos incorporando pequeñas mejoras partiendo de pocos recursos y ampliando su base a través de su conocimiento local.</p> <p>Algunas de las “innovaciones” desarrolladas por los campesinos incluían el cultivo de cereales y legumbres de secano y la ganadería de ciclo corto para abordar la falta de alimentos en las dietas locales y generar ingresos a través del comercio de la cosecha excedente en los centros comerciales de los alrededores.</p> <p>Los campesinos propusieron mejorar la cría de sus cabras y pollos indígenas para lograr una mejor producción de leche y huevos. Su argumento era que las cabras y los pollos son más resistentes a las sequías y al cambio climático, y que la carne y huevos que proporcionan son una fuente de proteínas que permite mejorar la dieta de las personas; a su vez los excrementos de cabra mejoran la fertilidad del suelo, y la venta de estos animales supone unos ingresos muy necesarios para pagar la escolarización de los niños, los costes médicos y los insumos agrícolas. </p> <p>Los campesinos recibieron una variedad de pollo de mayor calidad, lo que redundó en un incremento de la producción de huevos. Una de las innovaciones indígenas fue la decisión que tomaron los campesinos de hacer que una de las gallinas madre se ocupara de los polluelos de muchas otras gallinas, lo que permitió que estas gallinas utilizadas para la cría pudieran volver a producir huevos a la mínima oportunidad.</p> <p>Durante la encuesta de referencia, las mujeres campesinas destacaron el agua para consumo doméstico como la principal prioridad, y sugirieron la utilización de diques de arena para almacenar agua a lo largo del año. Se construyeron por completo tres diques en los ríos Muini, en Milala, Kamunyii, en Wote (ambos en el Condado de Makueni), y Yethi, en Kitui. </p> <h3><em>“Es imposible alcanzar el éxito solo.”</em></h3> <p>La comunidad comparte y gestiona conjuntamente este recurso para asegurar equidad y sostenibilidad. El desarrollo de nuevos mecanismos de financiación probablemente derivaría en una mayor implicación del sector privado a la hora de llevar a cabo innovaciones en ingeniería para construir presas y suministrar agua a los hogares. </p> <p>Una de las principales lecciones aprendidas fue la necesidad de que los campesinos participen en la búsqueda de soluciones a sus propios problemas. La iniciativa de los campesinos beneficiarios de nuestro proyecto de plantar sorgo, un cultivo resistente a las sequías de manera natural, les permitió aplicar una innovación tradicional al aprovechar las escasas precipitaciones que tienen lugar durante la corta estación de lluvias, y por lo tanto permitiéndoles una segunda cosecha.</p> <p>Es imposible alcanzar el éxito solo. Con el apoyo del Departamento de Economía Doméstica del Ministerio de Agricultura, los campesinos inventaron nuevas recetas para hacer comidas sabrosas a base de sorgo. Los campesinos más jóvenes utilizaron el excedente de sorgo para alimentar a la mejorada variedad de pollos que poseen y comenzaron a vender los huevos que producían. A su vez, utilizaron el residuo del sorgo como abono para fertilizar el suelo y como banco de pienso para el consumo del ganado durante la estación seca.</p> <h3><em>“La creatividad y perseverancia de los campesinos deberían constituir un elemento integral del diseño de los proyectos, y no una reflexión posterior.”</em></h3> <p>No se debería subestimar la importancia de fortalecer las capacidades locales, ni el tiempo que se requiere para ello. Una de las mayores contribuciones de Africa Harvest al proyecto fue la formación de los campesinos, el fortalecimiento de sus capacidades, la transferencia de habilidades, especialmente en lo relativo a las buenas prácticas agrícolas y la diseminación de información a los campesinos a lo largo de toda la cadena de valor. </p> <p>Los grupos sociales más desfavorecidos tienen el potencial de convertirse en motores clave del desarrollo. Africa Harvest colaboró con personas portadoras del VIH/SIDA, jóvenes, viudas, huérfanos y hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para rehabilitarse de su adicción al alcohol. Apreciar y trabajar con personas desfavorecidas ayudó a demostrar inmediatamente que nuestra intervención realmente funcionaba, lo que atrajo la atención de otros miembros de las comunidades. El proyecto es a su vez un ejemplo contrastado de que el aprovechamiento del conocimiento local puede estimular y ampliar con éxito nuevos procesos innovadores, en los que una idea lleva a la siguiente. </p> <p>Una estrategia para el desarrollo integrada puede tener un efecto positivo en diversos aspectos de la vida de las comunidades. La creatividad y perseverancia de los campesinos africanos que disponen de pocos recursos deberían constituir un elemento integral del diseño de los proyectos, y no una reflexión posterior.</p> <h3><em>“Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de las personas que desarrollan estas innovaciones carecen de la confianza y de los medios para dar a conocer sus ideas a mayor escala.”</em></h3> <p>Los socios que trabajan en desarrollo podrían seguir el ejemplo del FIDA y permitir más flexibilidad a la hora de aplicar los proyectos, sin por ello dejar de alcanzar sus objetivos, promoviendo las innovaciones de los campesinos y permitiendo que los promotores de los proyectos se centren en resolver los problemas a los que se enfrentan los campesinos a la vez que también abordan la seguridad alimentaria, la generación de ingresos y la sostenibilidad.</p> <p>Para organizaciones I+D, la lección fundamental es considerar a los campesinos y a los científicos como socios en el desarrollo. En el marco del proyecto FOSEM, ambos grupos colaboraron para dar con la idea de utilizar un cultivo tanto para la nutrición como para la fertilidad del suelo: mijo de alto rendimiento y doble uso proveniente de semillas certificadas cuyas hojas tiernas sirven para consumo humano mientas que las más viejas constituyen un importante ingrediente para el alimento de los pollos, así como la semilla una rica fuente de proteína. El mijo fija el nitrógeno atmosférico y aumenta la fertilidad del suelo. Asimismo, el residuo que genera se utiliza para alimentar a las cabras y como abono para el suelo. </p> <p>De manera general, estas micro-innovaciones constituyen mejoras que suelen ser de bajo coste, principalmente porque se basan en los recursos locales. A menudo, muchas de las principales empresas desarrolladoras de ingeniería agrícola no prestan atención a este tipo de innovaciones, que sin embargo tienen un gran potencial para expandirse y para favorecer la sostenibilidad.  Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de las personas que desarrollan estas innovaciones carecen de la confianza y de los medios para dar a conocer sus ideas a mayor escala.   </p> <p>Lee el ensayo: <strong><a href="http://blogs.oxfam.org/sites/blogs.oxfam.org/files/nuevas-ideas-conocimiento-indígena-wambugu-dic2012.pdf" target="_blank">Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Día 8: Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_en first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge" title="Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge" class="translation-link" xml:lang="en">English</a></li> <li class="translation_fr last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blogs/12-12-19-jour-8-integrer-de-nouvelles-idees-la-connaissance-traditionnelles" title="Jour 8: Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> </ul> Tue, 18 Dec 2012 23:01:00 +0000 Dr. Florence Wambugu 10165 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/10165#comments Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em><strong>Experts’ ideas about how resource-poor farmers could improve productivity ought to be guided by indigenous knowledge. Low-cost, micro-innovations that make use of local resources have great potential but are often overlooked by mainstream developers of agricultural technology.</strong></em></p> <p><em>By Dr. Florence Wambugu, CEO, <strong><a href="http://africaharvest.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International</a></strong> (AHBFI)</em></p> <p>Although many people know me because of my frontline work in advocating for Africa’s right to Genetically Modified (GM) technology, many don’t know my early involvement in this technology was largely driven by the desire to increase agricultural productivity for resource-poor farmers. I remain true to my calling, but wiser to know that the GM technology is only one in the large arsenal of tools available to scientists and farmers. </p> <p>There is, of course, a place for conventional technologies, but what I really wish to explore in this article is how “expert ideas” targeted to resource poor farmers need to be framed within the indigenous knowledge of technology recipients.   </p> <p>When HIV/AIDS robs a woman of her husband, does the widowed mother, now alone to take care of her seven children, have anything to contribute to her plight? Does the fact that she owns only one acre of land in Kenya’s arid and semi arid lands  make her a mere recipient of development interventions? Could her experiences with the myriad of challenges provide a solution to her problems?? </p> <h3><em>“The mainstream drivers of agricultural R&amp;D often fail to incorporate home-grown ideas and innovations into their interventions.”</em></h3> <p>Sadly, the mainstream drivers of agricultural R&amp;D often fail to incorporate home-grown ideas and innovations into their interventions. Forced by years of limited success, development players are now searching for how best to tap farmers’ indigenous knowledge and innovations. </p> <p>A case in point is a project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and implemented by Africa Harvest. The Food Security and Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Livelihoods in Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya (FOSEMS) Project, demonstrates how to unlock value by tapping indigenous ideas and innovations. </p> <p>The project takes an integrated approach to food security, ecosystem management and sustainable livelihoods using five components: traditional food crops, horticultural crops, soil fertility management, water (conservation, harvesting and management) and short-cycle livestock. </p> <p>The project location represents the poorest of the poor in the harsh arid and semi-arid environment of Makueni District and Central Kitui of the Eastern Province of Kenya. The communities depend on agriculture or agro-pastoralism for their livelihoods; they include subsistence farmers, traditional crop processors, livestock farmers, HIV/AIDS affected households, unemployed rural people and farm produce dealers.   </p> <h3><em>“While not applying advanced systems of agricultural production, they managed to increase their incomes by making small improvements with few resources.”</em></h3> <p>At project inception, we were very conscious that among target resource-poor farmers, there existed indigenous knowledge and innovation. We were therefore on the lookout for farmers doing novel things to mitigate the challenges they faced.  </p> <p>Our staff (a multi-disciplinary team of scientists, sociologists, economists and field workers) joined hands with local communities and other stakeholders and pursued an approach we call farmer-first-and-last (FFL) and it has proven more effective than the often used alternative, the technology transfer (TT) model.  </p> <p>We started with a systematic process of understanding the conditions of farmers, and in consultation with famer leaders developed home-grown adaptable solutions to resolve the challenges people faced. . </p> <h3><em>“Farmers are innovators who generate agricultural practices which are very well adapted to the prevailing conditions.”</em></h3> <p>These included unfavourable soil conditions, erratic rainfall patterns, low literacy levels, unstable market prices of inputs and final produce, and limited access to insurance and credit markets. While, some do own the land on which they farm, they lack productive assets acceptable as collateral. Research generally agrees that these farmers will be disproportionately affected by climatic changes and that trade reforms are not sufficient to reduce poverty among them.  </p> <p>These farmers are experimenters and innovators who generate their own agricultural practices which are very well adapted to the prevailing agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions. While not applying advanced systems of agricultural production, they managed to increase their incomes by making small improvements with few resources, expanding their resource base by building upon local knowledge. </p> <p>Some of the farmer “innovations” included growing of dry land cereals and legumes and also keeping short-cycle livestock to address food deficiency in local diets and income generation from marketing the surplus in the nearby shopping centres. </p> <p>Farmers proposed the upgrading of their indigenous goats and chickens to improve their breeds for milk and egg production. Their explanation was that goats and chickens were more resilient to drought and climatic changes; their meat and eggs are a source of protein to improve human diet; goat droppings boost the fertility of gardens; and their sale provides much needed income for school fees, medical costs and farm inputs. </p> <h3><em>“It’s impossible to achieve success alone.”</em></h3> <p>Farmers received an improved variety of chicks which resulted in increased egg production. One of the indigenous innovations was the farmers decision to assign one of the mother hens to tend to the chicks of several mother hens; this released others hens used in brooding to resume egg production at the earliest opportunity. </p> <p>During the baseline survey, women farmers identified water for domestic use as the highest priority and suggested sand dams could retain water throughout the year. Three  sand dams across Muini River in Mulala, Kamunyii in Wote both in Makueni County and Yethi River in Kitui were constructed and completed. </p> <p>The community shares and manages this resource to ensure equity and sustainability.  Innovative funding mechanisms would probably attract the private sector to play a greater role in the search for greater engineering innovation in building dams and providing domestic water.  </p> <p>A key lesson was that farmers must be involved in the search for solutions to their problems. Our farmers’ idea of planting sorghum, which is a naturally drought-resistant grain crop allowed them to use a traditional innovation taking advantage of the minimal precipitation that occurs during the short rain season, thereby affording them a second harvest. </p> <p>It’s impossible to achieve success alone. With help from the Ministry of Agriculture’s Home Economics Department, farmers became more innovative in making new recipes of tasty meals from sorghum grains. Younger farmers fed their surplus sorghum grain to the improved chickens and then sold eggs instead. The sorghum residue was also used as manure to fertilise the soil and as a fodder bank for consumption by livestock during the dry season.</p> <h3><em>“Tapping into the creativity and perseverance of poor farmers should be an integral aspect of project design, not an after-thought.”</em></h3> <p>You cannot underestimate the importance of building local capacity—nor the time it takes. A major contribution of Africa Harvest in the project was training, capacity building, skills transfer, especially in good agronomic practices, and information dissemination to farmers along the whole value chain. </p> <p>The disadvantaged in society could be key drivers of development. Africa Harvest tapped into persons living with HIV/AIDS, youth, widows, orphans and men and women undergoing alcohol abuse rehabilitation. Appreciating and working with the disadvantaged helped to demonstrate in the fastest way that our interventions worked. This attracted other community members. The project also provides conclusive evidence that local knowledge can be built upon to successively stimulate and upscale processes of innovation, with one new idea spawning the next. </p> <p>The integrated-approach to development can positively impact many aspects of community life. Tapping into the creativity and perseverance of African’s resource-poor farmers should be an integral aspect of project design, not an after-thought.</p> <p>Development partners could also emulate the example of IFAD by allowing some flexibility in project implementation while achieving project targets, encouraging farmers’ innovations and allowing project promoters to focus on solving the problems facing the farmers, while still focusing on food security, income generation and sustainability.</p> <h3><em>“Most innovators lack confidence and the means to make their ideas more widely known.”   </em></h3> <p>For R&amp;D organizations, the key lessons are that farmers and scientists are partners in development. For the FOSEM project, the two groups worked together to come up with a legume for nutrition and soil fertility: high-yielding dual-purpose cowpea from certified seeds whose tender leaves serve as a vegetable for human consumption, while the mature leaves form an important ingredient in chicken feed and the seeds provide a rich source of protein. Cowpea fixes atmospheric nitrogen and enhances soil fertility. Its residue is also used to feed goats and provide manure for the soil. </p> <p>Overall, such micro-innovations bring improvements that tend to be low-cost, and because they primarily make use of local resources. These innovations are often overlooked by mainstream developers of agricultural technology.  These innovations have good potential for dissemination and sustainability. Sadly, most of the innovators lack confidence and the means to make their ideas more widely known.     </p> <p>Download: <strong><a href="http://blogs.oxfam.org/sites/blogs.oxfam.org/files/new-ideas-indigenous-knowledge-wambugu-dec2012.pdf" target="_blank">Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_fr first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blogs/12-12-19-jour-8-integrer-de-nouvelles-idees-la-connaissance-traditionnelles" title="Jour 8: Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/12-12-19-dia-8-encuadrar-nuevas-ideas-en-el-marco-del-conocimiento-indigena" title="Día 8: Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Tue, 18 Dec 2012 23:01:00 +0000 Dr. Florence Wambugu 10162 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge#comments Jour 8: Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/10163 <div class="field field-name-body"><p></p> <p><em><strong>Les idées des experts sur comment améliorer la productivité des fermiers qui ont peu de moyens devraient être guidées par les connaissances autochtones. Des micro-innovations peu couteuses qui utilisent les ressources locales ont un grand potentiel mais sont souvent négligées par les développeurs de technologies agricoles. </strong></em></p> <p>Par le Dr Florence Wambugu, directrice générale d’Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International (<strong><a href="http://africaharvest.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">AHBFI</a></strong>)</p> <p>Si beaucoup me connaissent pour mon travail en faveur du droit d’accès de l’Afrique à la technologie de la modification génétique, peu savent que ce qui a éveillé mon intérêt pour cette technologie fut principalement le désir d’augmenter la productivité des agriculteurs pauvres en ressources. Je reste fidèle à cette idée mais sais pertinemment que la modification génétique n’est qu’un élément d’une longue liste d’outils dont disposent les scientifiques et les agriculteurs. </p> <p>Bien évidemment, les technologies conventionnelles jouent un rôle important. Toutefois, ce que j’aimerais vraiment explorer dans cet article, ce sont les idées des spécialistes en la matière, destinées aux agriculteurs pauvres en ressources, et la nécessité d’intégrer ces idées à la connaissance traditionnelle des personnes à qui est destinée la technologie.</p> <p>Lorsque que le VIH ou le sida prive une femme de son mari, cette dernière, désormais seule pour s’occuper de ses sept enfants, a-t-elle les moyens de se sortir cette situation désespérée qu’est la sienne ? Es ce  parce qu’elle possède seulement un demi-hectare de terres arides et semi-arides au Kenya, faut-il qu’elle devienne alors une simple bénéficiaire des interventions de développement ? Son expérience personnelle ne pourrait-elle pas l’aider à relever la myriade de défis auxquelles elle fait face et à résoudre ses problèmes ?</p> <p>Malheureusement, les principaux acteurs de la recherche et du développement intègrent  rarement les idées et les innovations des populations locales dans leurs interventions. Des années de succès limité poussent désormais ces acteurs à réfléchir à comment tirer le meilleur parti des connaissances et des innovations locales. </p> <h3><em>« Les principaux acteurs de la recherche et du développement intègrent  rarement les idées et les innovations des populations locales dans leurs interventions. »</em></h3> <p>Le projet financé par le Fonds international pour le développement agricole (FIDA) et mis en œuvre par Africa Harvest illustre bien cette idée. Ce projet, sur la sécurité alimentaire et la gestion de l’écosystème pour des moyens de subsistance durables dans les terres arides et semi-arides du Kenya (FOSEMS pour son sigle en anglais), démontre la valeur qu’apportent les idées et les innovations locales aux interventions.</p> <p>Pour aborder les questions de sécurité alimentaire, de gestion de l’écosystème et de moyens de subsistance durables, le projet adopte une approche intégrée divisée en cinq thèmes : les cultures alimentaires traditionnelles, les cultures maraîchères, la gestion de la fertilité des sols, l’eau (la conservation, la récupération et la gestion) et l’élevage à cycle court.</p> <p>Le projet se situe dans les zones les plus pauvres de l’environnement hostile aride et semi-aride que sont les districts de Makueni et de Kitui central de la province orientale du Kenya. Les moyens de subsistance des communautés dépendent de l’agriculture et de l’agro-pastoralisme. Les communautés comprennent des agriculteurs de subsistance, des producteurs alimentaires traditionnels, des éleveurs, des familles affectées par le VIH ou le sida, des ouvriers ruraux sans emploi et des vendeurs de produits agricoles.</p> <p>Au moment de la création du projet, nous étions bien conscients du fait que, parmi les agriculteurs pauvres en ressources ciblés, il y avait des connaissances et des innovations locales. Nous étions alors à la recherche d’agriculteurs faisant preuve d’innovation pour relever les défis auxquels ils étaient confrontés.</p> <p>Notre équipe (multidisciplinaire, composée de scientifiques, de sociologues, d’économistes et de professionnels de terrain) a travaillé de concert avec les communautés locales et autres parties prenantes sur une approche appelée « farmer first and last » (FFL), qui s’est avérée plus efficace que le modèle de transfert de technologie (TT), qui est l’autre alternative plus régulièrement utilisée.</p> <h3><em>« Ils parviennent à augmenter leurs revenus en faisant des petits progrès avec peu de ressources. »</em></h3> <p>Nous avons commencé par étudier systématiquement les conditions de vie des agriculteurs et après avoir consulté les leaders agricoles, nous avons développé des solutions locales adaptables pour résoudre les problèmes des communautés.</p> <p>Il s’agissait de problèmes tels que les conditions défavorables des sols, l’irrégularité des régimes pluviométriques, les faibles niveaux d’alphabétisation, la volatilité des prix sur les marchés des intrants et des produits finaux ou encore l’accès limité aux assurances et aux crédits. Alors que certains sont effectivement propriétaires de la terre qu’ils cultivent, ils manquent d’actifs de production en guise de garanties acceptables. Les recherches montrent généralement que ces agriculteurs seront touchés par les changements climatiques de façon disproportionnée et que les réformes commerciales ne seront pas suffisantes pour réduire leur niveau de pauvreté.</p> <p>Ces agriculteurs sont des expérimentateurs et des innovateurs qui génèrent leurs propres techniques agricoles, lesquelles sont très bien adaptées aux conditions agroécologiques et socioéconomiques actuelles. Sans appliquer de systèmes de production agricole de pointe, ils parviennent à augmenter leurs revenus en faisant des petits progrès avec peu de ressources, et en augmentant les ressources de base grâce à leurs connaissances locales.</p> <p>Certaines des innovations consistaient à cultiver des céréales et des légumineuses sur des terres sèches et de conserver un cycle d’élevage court en vue de corriger les carences alimentaires dans les régimes locaux et la génération de revenus en commercialisant les surplus dans les centres commerciaux voisins.</p> <p>Les agriculteurs proposèrent d’augmenter le nombre de chèvres et de poules en leur possession afin d’améliorer leur production de lait et d’œufs. Ils étayaient cette idée par le fait que les chèvres et les poules sont les animaux les plus résistants face à la sécheresse et au changement climatique, et que la viande et les œufs sont une source de protéines permettant d’améliorer le régime alimentaire humain, les crottins de chèvre augmentent la fertilité des sols et la vente d’animaux génère un revenu ô combien nécessaire pour couvrir les frais de scolarité, les frais de santé et les intrants agricoles.</p> <h3><em>« Ces agriculteurs sont des innovateurs qui génèrent des techniques agricoles, lesquelles sont très bien adaptées aux conditions actuelles. »</em></h3> <p>Les agriculteurs se sont vus remettre une race améliorée de poussins, entraînant une augmentation de la production d’œufs. L’innovation indigène ici fut la décision des agriculteurs d’utiliser une seule poule pour couver les œufs de plusieurs poules. Cela a permis aux autres poules pondeuses de reprendre la production d’œufs au plus tôt. </p> <p>Pendant l’enquête initiale, des agricultrices avaient identifié leur première priorité comme étant l’eau à usage domestique et avaient suggéré que des barrages de sable pourraient aider à retenir l’eau tout au long de l’année. Trois barrages de sables furent entièrement construits le long des rivières Muini à Mulala et Kamunyii à Wote, toutes deux dans le district de Makueni, ainsi que sur la rivière Yethi, dans le district de Kitui.</p> <p>La communauté gère et partage cette ressource afin de garantir équité et durabilité. Des mécanismes de financement innovateurs pourraient probablement attirer le secteur privé, lequel jouerait un rôle plus important dans la recherche de techniques meilleures et innovantes dans la construction de barrages et l’approvisionnement en eau à usage domestique.</p> <p>Il fallait surtout retenir de cette expérience que les agriculteurs et agricultrices doivent impérativement être impliqués dans la recherche de solutions à leurs problèmes. L’idée de nos agriculteurs de planter du sorgho, qui est une céréale naturellement résistante à la sècheresse, leur a permis d’utiliser une innovation traditionnelle tout en mettant à profit les précipitations minimales d’une saison des pluies relativement courte et leur offrant ainsi, une seconde récolte.</p> <h3><em>« Il est impossible de connaître le succès sans un peu d’aide. » </em></h3> <p>Il est impossible de connaître le succès sans un peu d’aide. Grâce à la participation du département d’économie domestique du ministère de l’Agriculture, les agriculteurs sont devenus plus innovateurs en créant de nouvelles recettes de plats savoureux avec le sorgho comme ingrédient de base. Des agriculteurs plus jeunes utilisaient les surplus de sorgho pour nourrir les races améliorées de poules et vendre ensuite les œufs. Les résidus de sorgho servaient également de fumier pour fertiliser les sols et de banque de fourrage pour la consommation du bétail pendant la saison sèche.</p> <p>Il ne faut jamais sous-estimer l’importance du développement des capacités locales, ni le temps que cela prend. La plus grande contribution d’African Harvest dans ce projet fut la formation des agriculteurs, le développement des capacités, le transfert de compétences, en particulier en matière de bonnes pratiques agricoles, et la dissémination d’informations auprès des agriculteurs tout au long de la chaîne de valeur. </p> <p>Les personnes les plus défavorisées ont le potentiel de devenir des éléments moteurs du développement. Africa Harvest a collaboré avec des personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida, des jeunes, des veuves, des orphelins, des hommes et des femmes en cure de désintoxication pour abus d’alcool. Apprécier à leur juste valeur les personnes défavorisées et travailler avec elles a permis de démontrer très rapidement que nos interventions fonctionnaient, ce qui a attiré l’attention d’autres membres de la communauté. Le projet prouve également que l’on peut se baser sur la connaissance locale pour stimuler puis améliorer le processus d’innovation, avec une nouvelle idée donnant naissance à la prochaine.</p> <h3><em>« Se servir de la créativité et de la persévérance des agriculteurs doit faire partie intégrante dans la conception d’un projet et non de passer au second plan. »</em></h3> <p>L’approche intégrée au développement peut avoir un impact positif dans beaucoup d’aspects de la vie de la communauté. Se servir de la créativité et de la persévérance des agriculteurs africains pauvres en ressources doit faire partie intégrante dans la conception d’un projet et non de passer au second plan.</p> <p>Les partenaires du développement peuvent aussi suivre l’exemple du FIDA et permettre davantage de flexibilité à l’heure de mettre en œuvre les projets, tout en atteignant leurs objectifs, en encourageant les agriculteurs à innover et en permettant aux organisateurs de projets de se concentrer sur la résolution des problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les agriculteurs tout en s’occupant de la sécurité alimentaire, la création de revenus et la durabilité.</p> <p>Les organismes de recherche et de développement doivent retenir que, en matière de développement, les agriculteurs et les scientifiques sont partenaires. Dans le cadre du projet FOSEMS, les deux groupes ont travaillé ensemble au développement d’une légumineuse nutritive et conservant la fertilité du sol : une variété de dolique à haut rendement et à double usage dont les feuilles tendres sont utilisées comme légume pour la consommation humaine et les feuilles plus vieilles constituent une part importante de l’alimentation des poulets, et dont les graines représentent une source riche de protéines. Le dolique fixe l’azote atmosphérique et augmente la fertilité du sol. Ses résidus sont aussi utilisés pour nourrir les chèvres et servent également de fumier.</p> <p>De manière générale, de telles micro-innovations apportent des améliorations souvent peu coûteuses, et ce, parce qu’elles ont recours aux ressources locales. Ces innovations sont rarement prises au sérieux par les principaux développeurs des technologies de l’agriculture. Elles ont le potentiel de favoriser la dissémination et la durabilité. Malheureusement, la plupart des innovateurs manquent de confiance en eux et des moyens leur permettant de faire connaître leurs idées auprès d’un public plus large.</p> <p>Téléchargez l'article : <a href="//blogs.oxfam.org/sites/blogs.oxfam.org/files/formuler-des-nouvelles-idees-wambugu-dec2012.pdf" rel="nofollow"><strong>Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones</strong></a></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Jour 8: Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_en first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge" title="Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge" class="translation-link" xml:lang="en">English</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/12-12-19-dia-8-encuadrar-nuevas-ideas-en-el-marco-del-conocimiento-indigena" title="Día 8: Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Tue, 18 Dec 2012 23:00:01 +0000 Dr. Florence Wambugu 10163 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/10163#comments Afrique de l'Est : dans le camp de Dadaab, un an après la famine http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/9921 <div class="field field-name-body"><p>Je me suis rendue pour la dernière fois à Dadaab, au Kenya, en juillet 2011. L’état de famine venait juste d’être décrété en Somalie et les réfugiés arrivaient en masse dans le camp, au rythme de 1 500 par jour. Ils avaient dû marcher plus de trente jours pour garantir leur sécurité et atteindre <strong><a href="https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=204988432443274227762.0004acf8ea26f9a168382&amp;msa=0&amp;ll=0.070038,40.331497&amp;spn=0.186424,0.338173" target="_blank" title="Carte de l'intervention d'Oxfam face à la crise alimentaire en Afrique de l'Est - Camp de Dadaab, Kenya" rel="nofollow">Dadaab</a></strong>, où ils arrivaient affaiblis, sous-alimentés et traumatisés par leur voyage. On y rencontrait quelques mères qui avaient dû prendre la terrible décision de laisser un de leurs enfants derrière elles et d’autres, plus nombreuses, qui avaient dû enterrer un enfant au bord du chemin. </p> <p>En arrivant à Dadaab presque un an plus tard, c’est une scène visiblement différente que j’observe en roulant à travers le camp. Les rues ne sont plus jonchées de carcasses d’animaux, il y a des feuilles sur les arbres et les <strong><a href="http://blogs.oxfam.org/fr/blog/11-05-04-refugies-somaliens-dadaab-recherche-abri" title="Blog Oxfam - Mai 2011 - A Dadaab, les réfugiés somaliens à la recherche d’un abri">milliers d’abris de fortune faits de branches et de sacs plastiques</a></strong> ont été remplacés par des tentes et parfois même des maisons en brique. Le site d’enregistrement des nouveaux réfugiés, autrefois si fréquenté, n’est plus aujourd’hui qu’un terrain vague déserté.</p> <p><strong>Oxfam était responsable de tâches très prosaïques : installation des systèmes d’alimentation en eau et application des mesures de santé préventive</strong>, telles que nettoyer ou installer des toilettes, montrer aux personnes comment utiliser un jerrycan et dispenser des formations simples mais vitales sur l’hygiène personnelle. Cela peut paraître évident mais pour une personne nomade qui a passé la majorité de son existence dans la brousse, l’importance culturelle de se laver les mains ou d’utiliser les toilettes peut lui être totalement étrangère, ce qui risque d’avoir des conséquences catastrophiques lorsque vous vivez dans un endroit surpeuplé. Oxfam est bien connu ici. Les gens ne disent que du bien de l’alimentation en eau du camp et répondent souvent que « l’eau, c’est la vie ». L’habitude de déféquer en plein air, que j’avais pu observer l’année dernière, appartient désormais au passé et les gens ne font plus rouler leurs jerrycans sur le sol. Ils restent propres et partagent entre eux leurs connaissances sur les microbes.</p> <p></p> <h3><strong>Le défi de Dadaab</strong></h3> <p><strong>Cependant, la vie à Dadaab est loin d’être idéale</strong>. Lorsque vous êtes réfugié au Kenya, vous n’avez pas le droit de travailler dans le pays. Les plus chanceux ont réussi à établir leur propre petite entreprise dans le camp mais beaucoup de réfugiés passent de longues journées à ne rien faire. Les enfants ayant réussi à obtenir une place dans l’une des écoles du camp suivent une instruction jusqu’à l’âge de 16 ans mais n’ont aucun débouché une fois leurs études terminées. Même les enseignants sont des réfugiés, à qui plusieurs organismes versent des « incitations financières » en guise de rémunération. J’ai fait la connaissance de Mohamed Hassan Dirige, un enseignant en école secondaire. Il est arrivé à Dadaab en 1991, à l’âge de 5 ans. Lorsqu’il vivait en Somalie, lui-même et toute sa famille se sont fait attaquer par des hommes armés qui les ont alignés, leur ont attaché les mains puis les ont abattus et laissés pour morts. Mohammed a survécu et a pris le chemin de Dadaab où il gagne aujourd’hui 8 000 shillings kényans par mois (environ 95 dollars). Il doit partager cette somme avec l’ensemble de sa famille, ce qui leur laisse moins de 60 centimes par jour pour vivre. Il reçoit toujours des rations alimentaires et son plus grand souhait serait de pouvoir rentrer dans son pays d’origine où il pourrait gagner un meilleur salaire. </p> <p>Oxfam fait appel autant que possible à des travailleurs réfugiés, rémunérés par des « incitations », pour effectuer des travaux tels que la <strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/content/argent-contre-travail-kenya-construction-sanitaires-camp-refugies-dadaab" target="_blank" title=" construction de sanitaires au camp de Dadaab" rel="nofollow">construction de latrines</a></strong> et les campagnes de santé publique. Oxfam fournit également à certains réfugiés des outils, des semences et de l’eau pour leur permettre de démarrer leur propre exploitation coopérative. C’est le cas d’Omar Abdullah, 27 ans, qui cultive des tomates et des pommes de terre que sa famille vend ensuite sur le marché local. Il gagne environ 2 000 shillings kényans par semaine (environ 24 dollars), ce qui lui a permis de construire une maison en brique pour sa famille. Il espère pouvoir élargir son exploitation et, dans un an ou deux, survivre sans les rations alimentaires. </p> <p><strong>La sécurité constitue l’une des préoccupations principales des réfugiés</strong>. Après l’enlèvement de deux travailleurs humanitaires en octobre 2011, plusieurs services vitaux assurés par les organismes d’aide ont dû être suspendus tandis que le <strong><a href="http://www.unhcr.fr/" target="_blank" title="UNHCR, Agence des Nations unies pour les réfugiés" rel="nofollow">Haut commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés</a></strong> (UNHCR) n’était plus autorisée à enregistrer les nouveaux arrivants. <strong>Bien que la sécurité se soit aujourd’hui améliorée, les conditions de travail dans les camps demeurent dangereuses</strong>. Fin juin, <strong><a href="http://www.france24.com/fr/20120702-kenya-otages-liberes-somalie-humanitaires-norwegian-refugee-council-camp-refugies-dadaab-shebab-al-qaida-islamistes%20" target="_blank" title="France24 - Les quatre humanitaires enlevés à Dadaab ont été libérés" rel="nofollow">deux chauffeurs ont été abattus et quatre travailleurs humanitaires enlevés</a></strong> – heureusement, cette fois-ci, ils ont pu être sauvés quelques jours plus tard. Presque chaque jour, quelqu’un découvre des engins explosifs improvisés, et presque chaque fois qu’un tel engin est découvert, les travailleurs doivent interrompre leur tâche.</p> <h3><strong>Face à la pénurie de financements </strong></h3> <p>Toutefois, aujourd’hui, <strong>c’est la pénurie de financements pour le camp de réfugiés le plus grand du monde qui constitue <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/pressroom/pressrelease/2012-07-12/camp-refugies-dadaab-kenya-fonds-urgence-manquent" rel="nofollow">le principal défi pour les organismes humanitaires</a></strong>. L’année dernière, les images de dizaines de milliers de Somaliens se réfugiant à Dadaab pour fuir la famine ont captivé l’attention du monde entier, qui a réagi en donnant généreusement. <strong>Toutefois, maintenant que les caméras de télévision sont parties, il reste peu d’argent pour fournir aux familles</strong> l’eau, les abris et les soins de santé dont elles ont désespérément besoin. Un camp de réfugiés ne devrait être qu’une solution temporaire mais <strong><a href="http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2011/07/18/01003-20110718ARTFIG00507-au-kenya-le-plus-grand-camp-de-refugies-du-monde.php" target="_blank" title="Le Figaro - Dadaab, au Kenya, le plus grand camp de réfugiés au monde" rel="nofollow">Dadaab existe depuis vingt ans</a></strong> et il est grand temps de trouver une solution à long terme pour le camp comme pour ses résidents. Pourtant, les financements destinés à l’éducation et à la formation des personnes se sont épuisés alors qu’ils permettraient de consolider les compétences dont elles ont besoin pour se construire un avenir meilleur.</p> <p>Pour tout un chacun, le camp de réfugiés de Dadaab est un environnement rude, parsemé d’obstacles. Ici, <strong>les gens désirent ardemment rentrer chez eux et ne veulent plus vivre de la charité</strong>. Toutefois, tant que la paix en Somalie ne sera pas garantie, ils n’auront d’autre choix que d’attendre et d’espérer.</p> <p>Pendant ce temps, Oxfam et les autres organismes d’aide fourniront à quelque 465 000 personnes les services vitaux dont elles ont besoin, dont l’alimentation, l’approvisionnement en eau et l’éducation, pour les préparer à rentrer un jour chez elles.</p> <h3>En savoir plus</h3> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/emergencies/crise-alimentaire-en-afrique-est" rel="nofollow">Oxfam face à la crise alimentaire en Afrique de l'Est</a></strong></p> <p><strong>Rapport d'avancement : <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/policy/crise-alimentaire-dans-corne-afrique" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Crise alimentaire dans la Corne de l'Afrique</a> (juillet 2011-juillet 2012)</strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/emergencies/crise-alimentaire-en-afrique-est" rel="nofollow"></a></strong><strong>Communiqué : <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/fr/pressroom/pressrelease/2012-07-12/camp-refugies-dadaab-kenya-fonds-urgence-manquent" rel="nofollow">Dans le plus grand camp de réfugiés au monde, les fonds d'urgence seront bientôt épuisés</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Afrique de l&#039;Est : dans le camp de Dadaab, un an après la famine</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_en first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-07-11-dadaab-one-year-after-famine" title="Dadaab – One year after the famine" class="translation-link" xml:lang="en">English</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/12-07-16-dadaab-%E2%80%93-one-year-after-famine" title="Dadaab: Un año después de la gran hambruna" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Wed, 25 Jul 2012 23:00:00 +0000 Jo Harrison 9921 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/node/9921#comments Helping pastoralists cope with a changing way of life in Kenya http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-07-10-helping-pastoralists-cope-changing-way-life-kenya <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>One year since the launch of Oxfam’s appeal for the <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/east-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow"><strong>food crisis in the Horn of Africa</strong></a>, Polycarp Otieno returns to Wajir in northeastern Kenya, to see how Oxfam’s response is helping communities to recover. </em></p> <p><strong>For many years, Abdillahi Jilaow depended on his livestock to provide for his seven children. Like generations before him, people in Wajir adapted to a harsh environment by following a pastoralist lifestyle. But as droughts become increasingly frequent, and pastoralist communities suffer from neglect and a lack of development, more and more are being forced into towns and alternative ways of making a living.</strong></p> <p>For Abdillahi, the 2011 drought was different to the many that had come before. He lost virtually all his animals, and for the first time he had to move from his rural home into one of Wajir’s growing towns and trading centres.</p> <p>“I had 30 cows, and 300 goats and sheep,” says Abdillahi. “When I was a pastoralist, life was good. But there were many challenges, and I was often worried when it didn’t rain and I had to move from place to place in search of pasture and water. During (last year’s) drought I lost all my cows and 270 of the goats and sheep. I could no longer stay in the bush, so I moved to Dambas.”</p> <h3>A sundries start-up pays for education</h3> <p>The ECHO-funded “La Nina” program, which in Wajir is run by Oxfam and WASDA, aims to support people like Abdillahi, who have been forced to drop out of pastoralism and have no alternative sources of livelihoods. Abdillahi was soon enrolled in a program to receive cash relief.</p> <p><strong>“I took 9,000 Kenyan shillings ($107) and used it to start this business,”</strong> he says, pointing to a small shop with a wooden table overflowing with various brands of juice, milk, sodas, batteries, detergents and even hair-dye. His business is clearly thriving.</p> <p>“After deducting my expenses I get a profit of about 2,000 shillings ($24) every month,” he explains. “I plow back some of the profits and save some of the rest. Right now I have 6,000 shillings ($72) in savings!” Abdillahi says he uses part of the profits to buy household essentials like food, and has also bought himself three new goats. The rest of the money is spent on paying school fees to educate his children.</p> <h3>Tailoring to the Dambas market</h3> Guray Hussein Muhamed in her Tailor's shop. Photo: Polycarp Otieno/Oxfam <p><strong>Just down the road from Abdillahi’s shop, mother-of-three Guray Hussein Muhamed is helping a customer try on a new dress.</strong> Her tailoring shop – selling new dresses and school uniforms, and repairing torn ones – is another one in the Dambas market that was set up with cash from the La Nina project.</p> <p>“Previously my family and I lived a pastoralist life,” she says. “During the drought I lost 32 of my 35 cows. I had to sell another two to pay my children’s secondary school fees. I moved to Dambas and noticed there was nobody offering tailoring services, so when I received the first few payments I bought a sewing machine and materials to sell.”</p> <p><strong>“I’m not an expert at sewing, but my daughter is</strong>. I let her do the sewing and I concentrate on selling. She manages the shop while I travel to buy materials in Wajir town. I make 4-5,000 shillings ($48-60) profit every month and this has helped me take better care of my children. Our food, clothing and money for the education all come from this shop.”</p> <p><strong>Abdillahi and Guray are just two of the 8,000 people in 61 locations across Wajir</strong> who have received cash since late last year as part of the ECHO La Nina project. But without more support for pastoralist communities, increasing numbers of people are likely to follow them into towns.</p> <p>“If the cash relief hadn’t come, life would have been very difficult,” says Abdillahi. “Although I always trust God to provide for me, it would have been very tough since I only had a few goats left.”</p> <h3>Read more</h3> <p><strong>Blog: <a href="/en/blogs/12-07-05-one-year-horn-africa-food-crisis-much-progress-and-many-lessons" rel="nofollow">One year on from the Horn of Africa food crisis, much progress and many lessons</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/food-crisis-horn-africa" rel="nofollow">Food crisis in the Horn of Africa: Progress report, July 2011 – July 2012</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/eastafrica/oxfam-responds-kenya-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">Oxfam's response in Kenya and photos from Wajir</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/east-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">East Africa food crisis</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Helping pastoralists cope with a changing way of life in Kenya</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_fr first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blogs/12-07-23-aider-pasteurs-adapter-evolution-mode-vie" title="Afrique de l&#039;Est : une aide pour les communautés pastorales contraintes de changer de vie" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/12-07-23-kenia-ayudando-las-comunidades-pastoralistas-adaptarse-una-nuevo-estilo-de-vida" title="Crisis alimentaria en Kenia: comunidades de pastores se adaptan a una nueva vida" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Mon, 23 Jul 2012 14:56:08 +0000 Polycarp Otieno Onyango 9917 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-07-10-helping-pastoralists-cope-changing-way-life-kenya#comments