Oxfam International Blogs - livestock http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/tags/livestock en Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em><strong>Experts’ ideas about how resource-poor farmers could improve productivity ought to be guided by indigenous knowledge. Low-cost, micro-innovations that make use of local resources have great potential but are often overlooked by mainstream developers of agricultural technology.</strong></em></p> <p><em>By Dr. Florence Wambugu, CEO, <strong><a href="http://africaharvest.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International</a></strong> (AHBFI)</em></p> <p>Although many people know me because of my frontline work in advocating for Africa’s right to Genetically Modified (GM) technology, many don’t know my early involvement in this technology was largely driven by the desire to increase agricultural productivity for resource-poor farmers. I remain true to my calling, but wiser to know that the GM technology is only one in the large arsenal of tools available to scientists and farmers. </p> <p>There is, of course, a place for conventional technologies, but what I really wish to explore in this article is how “expert ideas” targeted to resource poor farmers need to be framed within the indigenous knowledge of technology recipients.   </p> <p>When HIV/AIDS robs a woman of her husband, does the widowed mother, now alone to take care of her seven children, have anything to contribute to her plight? Does the fact that she owns only one acre of land in Kenya’s arid and semi arid lands  make her a mere recipient of development interventions? Could her experiences with the myriad of challenges provide a solution to her problems?? </p> <h3><em>“The mainstream drivers of agricultural R&amp;D often fail to incorporate home-grown ideas and innovations into their interventions.”</em></h3> <p>Sadly, the mainstream drivers of agricultural R&amp;D often fail to incorporate home-grown ideas and innovations into their interventions. Forced by years of limited success, development players are now searching for how best to tap farmers’ indigenous knowledge and innovations. </p> <p>A case in point is a project funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and implemented by Africa Harvest. The Food Security and Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Livelihoods in Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya (FOSEMS) Project, demonstrates how to unlock value by tapping indigenous ideas and innovations. </p> <p>The project takes an integrated approach to food security, ecosystem management and sustainable livelihoods using five components: traditional food crops, horticultural crops, soil fertility management, water (conservation, harvesting and management) and short-cycle livestock. </p> <p>The project location represents the poorest of the poor in the harsh arid and semi-arid environment of Makueni District and Central Kitui of the Eastern Province of Kenya. The communities depend on agriculture or agro-pastoralism for their livelihoods; they include subsistence farmers, traditional crop processors, livestock farmers, HIV/AIDS affected households, unemployed rural people and farm produce dealers.   </p> <h3><em>“While not applying advanced systems of agricultural production, they managed to increase their incomes by making small improvements with few resources.”</em></h3> <p>At project inception, we were very conscious that among target resource-poor farmers, there existed indigenous knowledge and innovation. We were therefore on the lookout for farmers doing novel things to mitigate the challenges they faced.  </p> <p>Our staff (a multi-disciplinary team of scientists, sociologists, economists and field workers) joined hands with local communities and other stakeholders and pursued an approach we call farmer-first-and-last (FFL) and it has proven more effective than the often used alternative, the technology transfer (TT) model.  </p> <p>We started with a systematic process of understanding the conditions of farmers, and in consultation with famer leaders developed home-grown adaptable solutions to resolve the challenges people faced. . </p> <h3><em>“Farmers are innovators who generate agricultural practices which are very well adapted to the prevailing conditions.”</em></h3> <p>These included unfavourable soil conditions, erratic rainfall patterns, low literacy levels, unstable market prices of inputs and final produce, and limited access to insurance and credit markets. While, some do own the land on which they farm, they lack productive assets acceptable as collateral. Research generally agrees that these farmers will be disproportionately affected by climatic changes and that trade reforms are not sufficient to reduce poverty among them.  </p> <p>These farmers are experimenters and innovators who generate their own agricultural practices which are very well adapted to the prevailing agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions. While not applying advanced systems of agricultural production, they managed to increase their incomes by making small improvements with few resources, expanding their resource base by building upon local knowledge. </p> <p>Some of the farmer “innovations” included growing of dry land cereals and legumes and also keeping short-cycle livestock to address food deficiency in local diets and income generation from marketing the surplus in the nearby shopping centres. </p> <p>Farmers proposed the upgrading of their indigenous goats and chickens to improve their breeds for milk and egg production. Their explanation was that goats and chickens were more resilient to drought and climatic changes; their meat and eggs are a source of protein to improve human diet; goat droppings boost the fertility of gardens; and their sale provides much needed income for school fees, medical costs and farm inputs. </p> <h3><em>“It’s impossible to achieve success alone.”</em></h3> <p>Farmers received an improved variety of chicks which resulted in increased egg production. One of the indigenous innovations was the farmers decision to assign one of the mother hens to tend to the chicks of several mother hens; this released others hens used in brooding to resume egg production at the earliest opportunity. </p> <p>During the baseline survey, women farmers identified water for domestic use as the highest priority and suggested sand dams could retain water throughout the year. Three  sand dams across Muini River in Mulala, Kamunyii in Wote both in Makueni County and Yethi River in Kitui were constructed and completed. </p> <p>The community shares and manages this resource to ensure equity and sustainability.  Innovative funding mechanisms would probably attract the private sector to play a greater role in the search for greater engineering innovation in building dams and providing domestic water.  </p> <p>A key lesson was that farmers must be involved in the search for solutions to their problems. Our farmers’ idea of planting sorghum, which is a naturally drought-resistant grain crop allowed them to use a traditional innovation taking advantage of the minimal precipitation that occurs during the short rain season, thereby affording them a second harvest. </p> <p>It’s impossible to achieve success alone. With help from the Ministry of Agriculture’s Home Economics Department, farmers became more innovative in making new recipes of tasty meals from sorghum grains. Younger farmers fed their surplus sorghum grain to the improved chickens and then sold eggs instead. The sorghum residue was also used as manure to fertilise the soil and as a fodder bank for consumption by livestock during the dry season.</p> <h3><em>“Tapping into the creativity and perseverance of poor farmers should be an integral aspect of project design, not an after-thought.”</em></h3> <p>You cannot underestimate the importance of building local capacity—nor the time it takes. A major contribution of Africa Harvest in the project was training, capacity building, skills transfer, especially in good agronomic practices, and information dissemination to farmers along the whole value chain. </p> <p>The disadvantaged in society could be key drivers of development. Africa Harvest tapped into persons living with HIV/AIDS, youth, widows, orphans and men and women undergoing alcohol abuse rehabilitation. Appreciating and working with the disadvantaged helped to demonstrate in the fastest way that our interventions worked. This attracted other community members. The project also provides conclusive evidence that local knowledge can be built upon to successively stimulate and upscale processes of innovation, with one new idea spawning the next. </p> <p>The integrated-approach to development can positively impact many aspects of community life. Tapping into the creativity and perseverance of African’s resource-poor farmers should be an integral aspect of project design, not an after-thought.</p> <p>Development partners could also emulate the example of IFAD by allowing some flexibility in project implementation while achieving project targets, encouraging farmers’ innovations and allowing project promoters to focus on solving the problems facing the farmers, while still focusing on food security, income generation and sustainability.</p> <h3><em>“Most innovators lack confidence and the means to make their ideas more widely known.”   </em></h3> <p>For R&amp;D organizations, the key lessons are that farmers and scientists are partners in development. For the FOSEM project, the two groups worked together to come up with a legume for nutrition and soil fertility: high-yielding dual-purpose cowpea from certified seeds whose tender leaves serve as a vegetable for human consumption, while the mature leaves form an important ingredient in chicken feed and the seeds provide a rich source of protein. Cowpea fixes atmospheric nitrogen and enhances soil fertility. Its residue is also used to feed goats and provide manure for the soil. </p> <p>Overall, such micro-innovations bring improvements that tend to be low-cost, and because they primarily make use of local resources. These innovations are often overlooked by mainstream developers of agricultural technology.  These innovations have good potential for dissemination and sustainability. Sadly, most of the innovators lack confidence and the means to make their ideas more widely known.     </p> <p>Download: <strong><a href="http://blogs.oxfam.org/sites/blogs.oxfam.org/files/new-ideas-indigenous-knowledge-wambugu-dec2012.pdf" target="_blank">Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Day 8: Frame new ideas within indigenous knowledge</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_fr first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blogs/12-12-19-jour-8-integrer-de-nouvelles-idees-la-connaissance-traditionnelles" title="Jour 8: Formuler des nouvelles idées avec les connaissances autochtones" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blogs/12-12-19-dia-8-encuadrar-nuevas-ideas-en-el-marco-del-conocimiento-indigena" title="Día 8: Encuadrar nuevas ideas en el marco del conocimiento indígena" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Tue, 18 Dec 2012 23:01:00 +0000 Dr. Florence Wambugu 10162 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-12-19-day-8-frame-new-ideas-within-indigenous-knowledge#comments Pregnant women and children facing hard time in Somalia http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-10-16-pregnant-women-and-children-facing-hard-time-somalia <div class="field field-name-body"><p><strong>Following last year’s <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/east-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">food crisis in Somalia</a> which affected millions of people, the humanitarian situation in the country has largely fallen off the news agenda. We have recently seen a rush of stories about how things are <a href="http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/10/08/the_mayor_of_mogadishu" rel="nofollow">improving</a> <a href="http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2012/s3601574.htm" rel="nofollow">in</a> <a href="http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/features/2012/10/15/feature-01" rel="nofollow">Mogadishu</a>, the <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/16/somalia-politics-idUSL5E8KG2AT20120916" rel="nofollow">changing of the president</a>, and <a href="http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/features/2012/09/30/feature-01" rel="nofollow">conflict around Kismayo</a>, but little attention has been paid to the rest of the country.</strong></p> <p>This year, the main rainy season (called the <strong><a href="http://wardheernews.com/Articles_2011/March/09_todob_rains-ahmed.html" rel="nofollow">Gu rains</a></strong>) that should last from April until June was poor. To find out the impact of the poor rains, Oxfam conducted a survey over July and August. Our research revealed that despite improving conditions for people in Mogadishu, the situation remains critical for over 2 million people across the south of the country. One of the most striking findings from a survey of over 1,800 households was the disproportionate numbers of deaths caused by preventable pregnancy related complications.</p> <h3>Pregnancy risks</h3> Only 44 percent of women with children under the age of one are breastfeeding. Photo: Oxfam <p>Half of the families had experienced disease or death in their families. 60 percent of those were from pregnancy related issues such as anemia, hypertension, excessive loss of blood and obstruction during labor. People said they had trouble getting the healthcare they needed because there were minimal health facilities nearby.</p> <p>Also only 44 percent of women with children under the age of one are breastfeeding which leads to an increase in illness, malnutrition and premature death in infants.</p> <h3>Access to water</h3> <p>The survey also revealed worrying news on people’s access to food and water. In Gedo, Bakool and Mudug, people expressed concerns about access to water with some women in Gedo telling us that they were making 18km round trips to collect water and they feared attack on the long journeys.</p> <p>Accessing water from surface ponds and shallow pools without water treatment increases the risk of disease and a recent cholera/acute watery diarrhea outbreak in Lower Juba has killed at least 39 people so far.</p> <p>El Niño conditions are predicted, which means forecasts of more flooding in Lower and Middle Shabelle, and Middle Juba. With flooding comes increased risk of water contamination, and damage and silting up of water sources.</p> <h3>Access to food</h3> <p>More than 70 percent of people asked predicted they wouldn’t have enough to eat in the next four months, with over 40 percent saying they were already skipping meals. You need to put this into the context of families already facing acute malnutrition – missing meals is much more serious than it can sound to some of us.</p> <h3>Livestock ownership</h3> <p>This is interesting given the reliance on livestock across Somali pastoral communities. We found that goat prices were remaining steady but families didn’t want to sell as their herds had been heavily depleted during last year’s drought. The other main shift is the huge decrease in cattle ownership and a smaller increase in more drought resistant animals like goats and camels.</p> <h3>Reliance on aid and the need for long term investment</h3> <p>Two main learning points emerged from the survey which will inform Oxfam’s work in Somalia going forward.</p> <p><strong>Firstly, the international community </strong>needs to keep humanitarian aid coming – with myriad other crises across Sahel, DRC, Sudan, and other places – we know that budgets are spread thinly and this is a warning to all of us that we need to maintain focus in Somalia to prevent people falling back into crisis.</p> <p><strong>Secondly, all agencies involved in Somalia </strong>need to build resilience of Somalis to deal with repeated crises. “Resilience” in humanitarian response has become a popular buzzword but now is the time for us all to put this into practice in Somalia.</p> <p>This means programs like:</p> <ul><li>Cash for work to help people in emergency situations carry out activities such as tree planting and rangeland improvement that should help land to be productive even when rains are insufficient;</li> <li>Restocking programs for pastoralists;</li> <li>Rehabilitation of canals: providing short term jobs and long term irrigation for crops;</li> <li>Training young people in skills that help them earn a decent living meaning they and their families are less likely to run short when prices rise;</li> <li>Sustainable provision of clean water and health which means people are stronger and healthier and more able to cope when food availability declines.</li> </ul><h3>Related links</h3> <p><strong>Download the full report: <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/oxfam-mb-somalia-food-livelihoods-alert-8oct2012.pdf" rel="nofollow">Somalia Food and Livelihoods Alert</a></strong> (PDF, 304 KB)</p> <p><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/somalia" rel="nofollow"><strong>Oxfam's work in Somalia</strong></a></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Pregnant women and children facing hard time in Somalia</h2></div> Tue, 16 Oct 2012 14:02:37 +0000 Ed Pomfret 9990 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blogs/12-10-16-pregnant-women-and-children-facing-hard-time-somalia#comments People "Facing Death" in many of Niger's villages http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blog/10-06-23-niger-people-facing-death-many-villages <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>Niger is at the center of the current food crisis in West Africa. Oxfam's Caroline Gluck reports from the rural areas around Niamey.</em></p> <p><a href="http://maps.google.com/maps?t=h&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;hq=&amp;ll=14.139239,2.134438&amp;spn=0.099877,0.102654&amp;z=12&amp;source=embed" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">View Larger Map</a> </p><p><strong>Simiri commune, in Ouallam district</strong>, about an hour and a half drive from Niger's capital, Niamey, is by no means one of the worst-affected areas of the country which is currently hit by the <strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/west-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">worsening current food crisis</a></strong>. There are areas further north in the district where the situation is said to be very serious.</p> <p>But even in Simiri, things are dire.</p> <p>I meet a group of men sheltering in the shade. "It's a catastrophe," they tell me as I ask them how things have been.</p> <p><strong>More than 80% of Nigeriens live in rural areas like this</strong>, depending on farming and stockbreeding for their livelihoods. It is often said that for most people, livestock are their bank accounts. If times are good they'll buy more animals, which is seen as an investment in the future. But now times are bad.</p> <h3>Starving stock: Harbingers of a hunger catastrophe</h3> <p>Most of the men in Simiri commune, who used to have animals, have been forced to sell them in order to buy food to feed their families.</p> <p>Two men told me that their cows had died within the last 9 days. There was no food or pasture for them and little water; they'd simply collapsed from starvation. Oxfam had distributed animal fodder in the commune, but the men tell me it has all been finished.</p> <p><strong>Father of four, Djibri Daouda, showed me his cow.</strong> "Last year, I had to sell two cows so I could buy food for the family," he said. "This was my last one," he gestured, pointing to a drying carcass in the sandy ground which surrounded by flies. "It died nine days ago."</p> Djibri Daouda and his dead cow. Credit: Caroline Gluck/Oxfam <p>He showed me the family's empty granary. The small harvest of millet was finished many months ago. "Only mice come here now," he said wryly.</p> <p>Apart from the cows, he used to own goats, sheep and several chicken. But his only remaining hen is sick and no longer lays any eggs. The family mainly survives on a diet of wild leaves mixed with cassava flour.</p> <p><strong>"I just pray to God that we can get through these difficult times.</strong> If we can survive this, then maybe we can start to have hope again."</p> <p>These are worrying times. And it's just the beginning of the most critical time in Niger, known as the hunger gap season, with several months to go before the next harvests in September. People have already exhausted most of their coping strategies – selling livestock and family assets.</p> <h3>Surviving on wild leaves</h3> <p>Moussa Kolikoye once owned more than 30 goats, 13 sheep, 9 cows, a donkey and two horses. But over the years, he's had to sell his precious livestock. And his last sheep died late last year.</p> <p>"This year, I have nothing," says the father of eight. "Sometimes, I can earn a little money, but I don't have much strength. I'm so weak from hunger. People here face death, that's all. We can go for 3-4 days without eating properly; just surviving on wild leaves."</p> <p><strong>A short drive away, I stop at the village of Zontondi.</strong> Men are selling firewood they've collected at the roadside – one of the few activities that can earn them any money. Even so, they have to walk by foot for nine kilometres or more to find any wood, leaving early in the morning and returning at night.</p> <p><strong>"These are the worst times I can remember,"</strong> said 50-year old father of twelve, Younoussa Mahmoudou, "far worse than 2005." That was the last time Niger faced a serious food crisis. This year, people say, hunger is more widespread. And they can only pray for help to arrive to get through the next few months.</p> <h3>Donate now</h3> <p>Please consider helping fund our emergency work in West Africa. These Oxfam affiliates are running direct appeals:</p> <ul><li><strong><a href="http://www.intermonoxfam.org/es/page.asp?id=3766" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Intermón Oxfam</a> (Spain)</strong></li> <li><strong><a href="https://www.oxfam.org.uk/donate/west-africa-food-crisis/index.php" rel="nofollow">Oxfam GB</a></strong></li> </ul><p>Alternatively, you can also make a donation to the general emergency fund of your nearest <a href="/en/getinvolved/donate" rel="nofollow"><strong>national Oxfam affiliate</strong></a>. Your money will be used to fund our emergency work worldwide, which includes responding in countries such as Niger, Mali and Chad.</p> <h3>Read more</h3> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/west-africa-food-crisis/niger-photos" rel="nofollow">Photo gallery: Food crisis in Niger</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/west-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">West Africa Food Crisis</a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>People &quot;Facing Death&quot; in many of Niger&#039;s villages</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_fr first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blog/10-06-25-niger-population-nombreux-villages-confrontee-mort" title="La population de nombreux villages nigériens &quot;confrontée à la mort&quot;" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blog/10-07-06-la-gente-vive-esperando-la-muerte-en-muchos-pueblos-de-niger" title="La gente vive esperando la muerte en muchos pueblos de Níger" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Wed, 23 Jun 2010 14:19:15 +0000 Caroline Gluck 9135 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blog/10-06-23-niger-people-facing-death-many-villages#comments On the road to Dakoro: Selling goats and getting grain in Niger http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blog/10-05-21-road-dakoro-selling-goats-getting-grain-niger <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>In the first of three blogs, Jane Barrett meets the herders selling their animals to buy grain, and Oxfam’s partners working to support them, during the current <strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/west-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow">West Africa food crisis</a></strong>.</em></p> <p><strong>The dirt road towards Dakoro is a rollercoaster ride.</strong> I meet two people from our partner, AREN in Maradi, the commercial capital of Niger, and we set off north for the pastoral region. Among other things, AREN distribute food and train pastoral groups in Niger. We pass herders with huge herds, mainly of goats or cattle. These, I’m told, are already sold and are being transported to Nigeria, a major buyer of Niger’s animals because they are of good stock and cheap at this time of year, when the herders don’t have enough to feed themselves, let alone their animals.</p> <p><strong>On our left we see a camp of nomadic herders</strong>. I approach carefully, as they tend to be shy. But this young mother of a boy and three girls, one of whom is a tiny baby, is forthright. Zainabu has come south from Amoules, about 80 kilometers north of Dakoro, in search of fodder for their animals (ten camels and six goats). Her husband is in town looking for work. They have had to sell many goats as there is no fodder. She and her family are planning to return to the north, which puzzles me, as there is even less fodder there. Later I’m told that there’s a reserve where herders often secretly take their animals to feed – at the risk of a huge fine.</p> <p><strong>We move on and pass a market</strong>, Sacabal, where Zainabu had sold her animals. The commercial traders, in their aviator sunglasses and slick tracksuits, are a stark contrast to the herders in their long cloaks and swathes of turban. Most of the animals are female – an indication that the herders are desperate to sell their animals, as they otherwise wouldn’t be selling their only reproductive capital. A member of our team, a vet we call “le docteur”, tells me that on a scale of 1 to 4 from weak/sick to strong/healthy, these animals rate a 1, as they are so emaciated.</p> <p><strong>As we drive further north</strong>, the landscape loses all its bush and becomes entirely sand. It’s hard for me to imagine that most years this is covered in fields of wheat and millet.</p> <p>We arrive in Tacha Ibrahim just before sunset, with just enough time to set up camp. As night falls, I’m relieved by the cool breeze after the 44 °C we endured throughout the day, and I’m looking forward to sleeping under the stars.</p> Children at the well in Tascha Ibrahim. Credit: Jane Barret/Oxfam <p><strong>The next day we wake up to the call to prayer.</strong> Today, hundreds of herders from the nearby villages are expected to descend upon Tacha Ibrahim to buy wheat and millet that AREN is selling at subsidized prices.</p> <p>After breakfast we walk to the well, which is a buzz of activity. Some herders have been here since four in the morning to get their turn feeding their animals. Donkeys pull the water up while the women and children scurry to fill their yellow jerry cans.</p> <p><strong>A consensus must be reached among the herders about how to proceed.</strong> A prior survey identified those that were vulnerable and needing these grains at a reduced price. Elders have been chosen to confirm that herders are who they claim to be as they’re called up from the list of those eligible. The herders agree that the sale must happen in a calm and ordered way so that no disrespect is brought upon the village. Some dare to express the hope that more grains might be made available next time, and there’s a broad nod of agreement.</p> <p><strong>The herders wait all day in the sweltering heat</strong> as one-by-one they’re called from the list to pay for their grain. Some particularly vulnerable people, such as a widow and a blind girl, have been chosen to receive the grain for free.</p> <p>At nightfall our partner team finishes up and returns to the camp, where the villagers, full of gratitude, have produced an excellent meal.</p> <h3>Read more</h3> <p><strong>View the audio slideshow: <a href="/en/video/20100511-food-crisis-niger" rel="nofollow">Food crisis in Niger</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/emergencies/west-africa-food-crisis" rel="nofollow"><strong>More about the food crisis in West Africa</strong></a></strong></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>On the road to Dakoro: Selling goats and getting grain in Niger</h2></div><ul class="links inline"><li class="translation_fr first"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/blog/10-05-24-route-dakoro-niger-vendre-chevres-acheter-cereales" title="Sur la route de Dakoro: au Niger ils vendent leurs chèvres pour s&#039;acheter des céréales" class="translation-link" xml:lang="fr">Français</a></li> <li class="translation_es last"><a href="http://l.blogs.oxfam/es/blog/10-05-24-camino-dakoro-vender-cabras-comprar-grano-niger" title="Camino a Dakoro: vender cabras y comprar grano en Níger" class="translation-link" xml:lang="es">Español</a></li> </ul> Fri, 21 May 2010 10:46:27 +0000 Jane Barrett 9097 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/en/blog/10-05-21-road-dakoro-selling-goats-getting-grain-niger#comments