Oxfam International Blogs - Latin America and the Caribeean http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/tags/latin-america-and-caribeean fr “A Woman Has To Like It” And Other Myths of Machismo http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/81674 <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em><strong>A powerful personal blog on how we can all fight the social norms that enable violence against women.</strong></em></p><p>‘Give me a blow job and I will play the Rihanna song.’</p><p>This is just one example of sexual harassment I have experienced over the last couple of months. It was much worse when I was younger, often escalating from verbal to physical sexual harassment.</p><p>When women confront their harasser – we are often met with verbal attacks and sometimes more extreme violence (just see the recent case of a woman who confronted her harasser&nbsp; and he hits her, in broad daylight, on a street in Paris). We are meant to want the attention, welcome the compliment and weather any discomfort, because to not do so, is to provoke.</p><p>Whether in online spaces or on the bus ride to work, <strong>the experience or threat of harassment and abuse are very real and present</strong> in the everyday lives of women across the world.</p><p>As part of our <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/campaigns/enough" rel="nofollow">Enough campaign to end violence against women</a>, we wanted to unpack and better understand what drives abuse and passes it from one generation to another. We decided to zoom in on eight countries across Latin America and the Caribbean, a region with one of the highest rates of violence against women.</p><p><img alt="Eliminate violence against women" title="Eliminate violence against women" height="512" width="1024" class="media-element file-default" data-delta="1" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/03-12-months.jpg" /></p><h3>What did we find?</h3><p>One of our key findings is that young people believe that men cannot control their sexual desires, and that women must comply with men’s sexual desires even if they do not want to.</p><p><strong>We confirmed the informal “rules”</strong> that are taught to every generation of young girls, about what it means to be a woman:</p><ul><li>Do not go out late</li><li>Do not get drunk</li><li>Do not wear that short skirt</li><li>Do not be out alone.</li></ul><p>These “rules” are built on the premise that men cannot help themselves and that women must comply in order to be safe from sexual violence, and they are being reproduced and replicated by the younger generation.</p><p><strong>If a woman does not play by these “rules,” she’s asking for it.</strong> And any sexual violence she experiences is her fault.</p><p>For example, 7 out of 10 young men aged 15–19 believe that a decent woman should not dress provocatively, nor be out on the streets late at night; and 6 out of 10 women of similar age share this belief.</p><p>Another belief used to justify sexual violence – is that when women say NO, they really mean YES. <strong>A staggering 65%</strong> of young men (15-19) believe this.</p><p><img alt="Eliminate violence against women" title="Eliminate violence against women" height="512" width="1024" class="media-element file-default" data-delta="2" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/05-dress.jpg" /></p><h3>Street harassment - ‘A woman has to like it.’</h3><p><a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/breaking-mould" rel="nofollow">Our research</a> confirmed that street harassment is normalized with 75% of young people across Latin America and the Caribbean accepting street harassment as normal.</p><p>In the Dominican Republic, we found 84% of young men (15-19) say their male friends believe they have the right to shout call out ‘compliments’ to women.</p><p>One young man in the Dominican Republic told us ‘A compliment is like poetry; a woman has to like it.’</p><h3>Women fighting back</h3><p>Despite the findings, there is a rising tide for change building on the success of the women’s movement which has successfully fought for legal protections. To date, 16 Latin American and Caribbean countries have laws in place punishing violence against women and 15 have incorporated femicide as a specific crime.</p><p><strong>The momentum for changing sexist beliefs and gender norms</strong> is reflected in the millions who took to the streets to march against violence. It is in the women finding the courage to share their stories of abuse and harassment online, using the hashtags <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23MiPrimerAcoso&amp;src=typd" rel="nofollow">#MiPrimerAcoso</a> (My First Harassment,) and <a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=%23NoTeCalles%20&amp;src=typd" rel="nofollow">#NoTeCalles </a>(Don’t Stay Silent), supporting other women to break their silence.</p><p>Innovative voices for change have also come from the artists and musicians who are using their craft as a way to shift the cultural narrative on machismo. <a href="https://www.facebook.com/OxfamBolivia/" rel="nofollow">Oxfam Bolivia</a> has had tremendous success raising awareness on harmful gendered social norms though social experiments and musical collaborations, which convey the message that jealousy and control are not love.</p><p>To counter the forces moulding violence into the everyday, we must influence the dominant narrative with new ideas, new ways of being, highlight not machismo but alternative models of masculinity, give visibility to families and individuals who are challenging existing belief systems and gender norms.</p><p>As individuals, <a href="https://sayenoughtoviolence.org" rel="nofollow">we can be a part of that change</a> by recognising how the jokes, gestures, conversations and images we share can shape the beliefs and actions of those around us.</p><p><em>This entry posted by Bethan Cansfield, Oxfam's Head of Enough/BASTA! Campaign to End Violence Against Women and Girls, on 8 August 2018.</em></p><p><em><strong>Read the report: <a href="https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/breaking-mould" rel="nofollow">Breaking the mould: Changing belief systems and gender norms to eliminate violence against women</a></strong><br></em></p><p><em><strong><img alt="Eliminate violence against women" title="Eliminate violence against women" height="512" width="1024" class="media-element file-default" data-delta="3" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/01-jonathan.jpg" /></strong></em></p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>“A Woman Has To Like It” And Other Myths of Machismo</h2></div> Fri, 10 Aug 2018 17:11:12 +0000 Bethan Cansfield 81674 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/81674#comments Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/81334 <div class="field field-name-body"><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><em>This entry posted by Oxfam's Communication Team in Latin America on 19 December 2017.</em></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div><p><span>Although income inequality has fallen in recent years, Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world. In 2014 the richest 10% of people in Latin America had amassed 71% of the region’s wealth. If this trend continues, according to Oxfam’s calculations, in just six years’ time the richest 1% in the region will have accumulated more wealth than the remaining 99%.</span></p><p>From 2002 to 2015, the fortunes of Latin America’s billionaires grew by an average of 21% per year —an increase that Oxfam estimates is six times greater than the growth of the whole region’s GDP.</p><p>Much of this wealth is held offshore in tax havens, which means that a sizeable portion of the benefits of Latin America’s growth are being captured by a small number of very wealthy individuals, at the expense of the poor and the middle class. This extreme income concentration and inequality is also confirmed by analysis of the tax data available on personal income in selected countries of the region.</p><p><strong>Gender inequality: a cause and a consecquence of income inequality</strong></p><p>And yes, there are more poor women than men in Latin America and the Caribbean. Women make up the majority of low-paid workers and those in the most precarious forms of work and who face disproportionate responsibilities for unpaid care work, which restricts their chances of taking up leadership positions or professional or technical jobs.</p><p>On average worldwide, women spend nearly 2.5 times more time on unpaid work than men each day and studies have shown that their responsibilities for unpaid care work do not reduce as they increase their participation in the labor market.</p><p><span>Gender inequality is both a cause and a consequence of income inequality. The IMF recently found that in countries with higher levels of income inequality, gender inequalities across health, education, labor market participation and representation were also higher. The gender pay gap, where women earn less than men for doing the same jobs, is also found to be higher in more unequal societies and this is compounded by occupational segregation and unpaid care responsibilities. Women get much less of the </span>economic pie than men do, and the very highest incomes are reserved almost exclusively for men – 445 of the 500 richest people in the world are men.</p><p><img alt="Photo: Percy Ramírez-Oxfam" title="How would the holiday season be without any discrimination towards women? 66% of Latin Americans believe the greatest challenge in the region is inequality between women and men. #HolidaysForChanging and sharing the chores. Photo: Percy Ramírez-Oxfam" height="827" width="1240" class="media-element file-default" data-delta="4" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/cred_-_percy_ramirez_interna_1.jpg" /></p><p><strong>Youth suffer most from economic crisis&nbsp;</strong></p><p><b><span></span></b><span>‘We shouldn’t lose sight of the fact that recovery is not universal and that almost 43 percent of the global youth labor force is still either unemployed or working yet living in poverty. It’s still not easy to be young and starting out in today’s labor market.’&nbsp;</span></p><p>Although the effects of the 2008 global recession have varied widely, youth are consistently the most affected. Moreover, youth have been hit harder than in previous recessions. A study of 17 middle-income countries found that youth experienced the largest rise in unemployment rates, which was even higher for young women, youth members of another marginalized group, and those living in rural areas. In 15 of the 17 countries included in the study, wage rates also decreased for youth.&nbsp;</p><p>In Latin America, despite relatively low overall unemployment rates over the past decade, youth represent over 40 percent of all unemployed people, despite comprising only 18 percent of the population.</p><p><strong>How to tackle inequality<br></strong></p><p>What is needed is a multi-pronged strategy to rebalance power within global and national economies, empowering people who are currently excluded and keeping the influence of the rich and powerful in check.</p><p>This is necessary for economies to work better in the interests of the majority and in particular in the interests of the poorest people, who have the most to gain from a fairer distribution of income and wealth. Governments in particular must work for citizens, representing the will of the people rather than the interests of big business, and must tackle extreme inequality.</p><p>This goes hand in hand with effective governance. The public interest should be the guiding principle of all global agreements and national policies and strategies.&nbsp;</p><p><img alt="Photo: Jesús Aurazo Dávila - Oxfam" title="Imagine if Santa Claus only had presents for 1 out of every 4 children. 75% of Latin Americans think authorities govern only for the most powerful. #HolidaysForChanging the rules and counting on public policies for all, not just the few." height="2550" width="4207" class="media-element file-default" data-delta="5" typeof="foaf:Image" src="http://l.blogs.oxfam/sites/default/files/cred_-_jesus_aurazo_davila_interna_2_0.jpg" /></p><p><em>Photo: Jesús Aurazo Dávila - Oxfam</em></p><p><b>References: </b></p><ul><li><em>Alicia Bárcena y Winnie Byanyima (2016),</em> <i>América Latina y el Caribe es la región más desigual del mundo.</i> <i>¿Cómo solucionarlo? <em>(https://blogs.oxfam.org/es/blogs/16-03-16-america-latina-y-el-caribe-region-mas-desigual-mundo).</em></i></li><li><i><em></em></i>Rosa María Cañete Alonso (2015), <i>Privilegios que niegan derechos, Desigualdad extrema y secuestro de la democracia en América Latina y el Caribe</i>. (https://www.oxfam.org/es/informes/privilegios-que-niegan-derechos).</li><li>Jennifer Glassco y Lina Holguin (2016), BOLETÍN INFORMATIVO DE OXFAM, <i>JOVENES Y DESIGUALDAD, Es tiempo de apoyar a los jóvenes como actores de su propio futuro. </i>(https://peru.oxfam.org/sites/peru.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/J%C3%B3venes%20y%20desigualdad_2_0.pdf).</li><li>Deborah Hardoon (2017), <i>Una economía para el 99%, Es hora de construir una economía más humana y justa al servicio de las personas</i>. (https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bp-economy-for-99-percent-160117-es.pdf).</li></ul><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world</h2></div> Mon, 18 Dec 2017 19:11:37 +0000 Guest Blogger 81334 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/81334#comments Fighting inequality in Latin America: The road ahead http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/24205 <div class="field field-name-body"><p><em>Last week, I was in Santiago attending a <a href="http://www.imfsantiago2014.org/"><strong>high-level conference </strong></a>hosted by Chile’s Ministry of Finance and the International Monetary Fund.</em></p> <p><em>Along with policy-makers, academics, opinion leaders, and financial sector executives, I was exploring challenges and opportunities for securing inclusive and sustainable growth in Latin America.</em></p> <p><strong>Latin America is proof that the global trend of rising economic inequality can be reversed, if the political will exists.</strong> Despite historically being the most unequal region in the world, it is the only region that has managed to reduce inequality during the past decade.</p> <p>This success is the result of the right mix of government policies that focus on poor people. Increased spending on health and education since 2000 has had the greatest impact on inequality reduction. As a result of social public expenditures, many of the region’s poorest citizens have been able to access essential services without having to become indebted to pay for them. For Latin American youth, education is not only an equalizer but it will stimulate innovation, entrepreneurship and growth.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><p>Increased spending on health, education in Latin America has had the greatest impact on inequality reduction <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/IMFSantiago2014?src=hash">#IMFSantiago2014</a></p> <p>— Winnie Byanyima (@Winnie_Byanyima) <a href="https://twitter.com/Winnie_Byanyima/status/540954904794513408">December 5, 2014</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p>Increasing the minimum wage, public pensions and employment opportunities has also created secure livelihoods for millions.</p> <p>But this is not the end of the road. <strong>Despite these advances, Latin America is still the world´s most unequal region.</strong></p> <p>Close to a third of the population live in poverty – while the annual income of Latin America’s 113 billionaires this year is equal to the public budget of El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua put together. That same income is equal to the public health expenditure of nine Latin American countries.</p> <p>So, the question is: Can Latin America remain an example for the world, and maintain and sustain inequality and poverty reduction trends?</p> <p><strong>Oxfam thinks it can – if Latin American governments continue to invest</strong> in health, education and social protection, if alternatives are found to primary commodities exports as the engine of growth, and if progress is bolstered by progressive fiscal reforms.</p> <p>Growth in Latin America over the last decade has been largely driven by the commodity boom. Several economies in the region depend on oil and other extractive industries. This makes their economies vulnerable. Indeed, growth in LAC has now has stalled, and new drivers of growth are being sought. There is a need to diversify from primary commodity sectors, to sectors which can create many jobs.</p> <p>As the<a href="https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2013/sdn1310.pdf"><strong> IMF has pointed out</strong></a>, “the challenges of growth, job creation, and inclusion are closely intertwined.” Growth gives women job opportunities, but women’s participation in the labor market is also a part of the growth and poverty-reducing equation.</p> <p><strong>There has been a steady increase in women’s participation</strong> in the labor market in recent decades, but in most countries in the region women are much more likely than men to hold low-paid jobs. The wage gap between men and women is also <a href="http://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/6384/New%20Century%20Old%20Disparities.pdf?sequence=1"><strong>substantial</strong></a>, lagging behind OECD countries.</p> <p>Closing this gap will go a long way to equitable and sustainable development – triggering growth and reducing inequality.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><p><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/IMFSantiago2014?src=hash">#IMFSantiago2014</a> Betw 2000-2010,most <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/LAC?src=hash">#LAC</a> countries reduced inequality,50mn moved into middle class but region remains most unequal globally</p> <p>— Winnie Byanyima (@Winnie_Byanyima) <a href="https://twitter.com/Winnie_Byanyima/status/541244932514934784">December 6, 2014</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p><strong>Inequality can also be reduced by progressive taxation</strong> – an under-used instrument to reduce in Latin America thus far. A <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/research/fiscal-justice-reduce-inequality-latin-america-and-caribbean"><strong>recent Oxfam report</strong></a> highlights the low tax collection levels in the region, in comparison to the great social needs. Our research shows tax systems are largely skewed towards benefitting economic and political elites – rather than the majority of the people.</p> <p>More than half of tax in Latin American and the Caribbean comes from consumption taxes, such as VAT. This means the poorest devote a greater share of their income to pay taxes than the rich.</p> <p>Further, corporate tax exemptions in the region amount to $138,000 million per year. In the Dominican Republic tax exemptions for free zones, tourism and other industries are about $720 million - enough to double the health budget. In Nicaragua in 2008 tax exemptions amounted to $415.6 million, 40 per cent more than the Ministry of Health’s total budget that year.</p> <p><strong>Enormous tax evasion in the region is also a problem</strong>. <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/research/fiscal-justice-reduce-inequality-latin-america-and-caribbean"><strong>Oxfam’s calculation</strong></a> is that money hidden in tax havens would be enough for 32 million people to be lifted out of poverty. That is, all people living in poverty from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador and Peru.</p> <p>Latin American leaders should improve their domestic resource mobilization systems, cooperate to stop the race to the bottom on corporate tax exemptions, and demand a say in the G20/OECD-led negotiations to reform global tax rules for curbing illicit financial flows.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><p>Latin American money hidden in tax havens would be enough to lift 32 million people out of poverty <a href="http://t.co/yCPlYBTXgW">http://t.co/yCPlYBTXgW</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/IMFSantiago2014?src=hash">#IMFSantiago2014</a></p> <p>— Winnie Byanyima (@Winnie_Byanyima) <a href="https://twitter.com/Winnie_Byanyima/status/540955083111153664">December 5, 2014</a></p></blockquote> <script async="" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script><p><strong>Courageous steps have been taken</strong> by many Latin American leaders in the last decade, and the successes speak for themselves. Now more courageous reforms are needed, to achieve a fiscal system which will dislodge entrenched inequalities and benefit all Latin America’s people equally, and in the long term.</p> <p><em>Originally published on the Huffington Post as: <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/winnie-byanyima/inclusive-sustainable-gro_b_6278690.html">Inclusive, Sustainable Growth Latin America: The Road Ahead</a></em> </p><p><em>Photo: Emelina Dominguez, agricultural technician, 42, tending to her vegetables. Honduras, 14 January 2007. Photo: Gilvan Barreto/Oxfam</em></p> <h3>What you can do</h3> <p><strong><a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/campaigns/even-it-up">Join the campaign to fight extreme inequality</a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://blogs.oxfam.org/en/blogs/1859">Read more blogs on inequality</a></strong></p> <p><strong>Download the flagship Oxfam report: <a href="http://www.oxfam.org/en/research/working-few">Working for the Few: Political capture and economic inequality</a></strong></p> </div><div class="field field-name-title"><h2>Fighting inequality in Latin America: The road ahead</h2></div> Mon, 08 Dec 2014 18:20:58 +0000 Winnie Byanyima 24205 at http://l.blogs.oxfam http://l.blogs.oxfam/fr/node/24205#comments